Utah Mountain Meadows Massacre and the Execution of John D. Lee

by SPENCER WILLIAM URE

john d. lee

The Salt Lake Tribune covered the execution of John D. Lee. This article was published on the front page of the March 24, 1877, issue.

Between September 7 and 11, 1857, there was a series of attacks on the Baker-Fancher emigrant wagon train at Mountain Meadows in southern Utah. Will Bagley wrote in Blood of the Prophets, “Alexander Fancher’s Party was said to consist of eleven families with twenty-nine children and sixty-five total members, traveling with eleven well-stocked wagons and large herds of cattle and horses.” (63) But why the Baker-Fancher party? It has been speculated that the attacks occurred because of the supplies individuals were carrying for their journey from Arkansas to California, and because the wagon train was passing through the Utah Territory during a time of civil unrest. Bagley quotes John D. Lee as saying, “As this lot of people had men amongst them that were supposed to have helped kill the Prophets in the Carthage jail, the killing of all of them would be keeping our oaths and avenging the blood of the prophets.” (381) Today, said Steven Lund, these series of attacks have come to be known as the Mountain Meadows Massacre.

According to both Bagley and Lund, Major John D. Lee of the Nauvoo Legion, Utah’s territorial militia, “led a ragtag band of 60 or 70 Latter-day Saints, better known as Mormons, and a few Indian freebooters” in the assault on the wagon train. (Bagley, “Wild West”) The only emigrants who were spared were 17 small children. (Lund)

Bagley writes in Blood of the Prophets, “The murder at Mountain Meadows raise larger questions about the human condition, particularly how decent men can, while acting on their and best firmest beliefs commit a great evil.” (xiii)

The significance of the Mountain Meadows Massacre comes from the scattered facts and myths that have been raised by this event. George Barclay stated in The Life and Confession of John D. Lee, the Mormon, that there is much speculation regarding what was truly the reasoning behind these attacks and what was covered up by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. (43)

On August 5, 1857, one month before the massacre, Brigham Young wrote that martial law was declared in the Utah territory. (Proclamation) During this time, there were multiple escalations in the state that likely contributed to the massacre at Mountain Meadows. Most notable was the start of the Utah War. Lund explained that the Utah War is known today as the confrontation that Utah Mormon settlers had with the United States government over disputes in the Utah Territory. Lund states, “In mid-1857, Latter-day Saint leaders heard rumors that the federal government might replace Brigham Young with a new governor of the Utah Territory, who would be backed by large numbers of federal troops.” These facts have shown that through the pressure from the federal government on the newly created Utah Territory, LDS leaders feared that members would again be driven from their home.

It has been said that this attack was an inside job and part of a larger conspiracy within the Mormon church. Barclay wrote in 1910 that the “extermination of these emigrants was duly presented to the priesthood, and was discussed at considerable length.” (Barclay, 40)

John D. Lee, who led the attack on the wagon train, was executed for his crimes two decades after the fact. In 1875 and 1876, he was tried twice and found guilty for his participation in the massacre. During his first trial, there were no witnesses to testify about his crimes. In order to create legal and due process, a second trial was held. Members of the LDS church were able to find additional witnesses who then testified against Lee. (Barclay, 40) A few months later, on March 23, 1877, Lee was executed, though “he denied any intent to do wrong.” (Barclay, 42)

The Mountain Meadows Massacre has many implications for Utah history. The most notable is that the LDS church has taken responsibility for the event. On September 11, 2007, the 150th anniversary of the event, The Salt Lake Tribune quoted a Mormon leader as saying, “What was done here long ago by members of our church represents a terrible and inexcusable departure from Christian teaching and conduct.” Henry B. Eyring offered an apology for the church’s role and said, “We cannot change what happened, but we can remember and honor those who were killed here.”

Spencer William Ure graduated in May 2017 with a Bachelor’s of Science degree in communication studies.

Sources

George Barclay, The Mountain Meadows Massacre with the Life, Confession and Execution of John D. Lee, the Mormon (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Barclay & Co, 1877).

T. R. H. Stenhouse, The Rocky Mountain Saints: A Full and Complete History of the Mormons, from the First Vision of Joseph Smith to the Last Courtship of Brigham Young (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1873).

“Message of the President of the United States to the 36th Congress, 1st Session,” May 4, 1860, http://bit.ly/2mf1oC1.

Brigham Young, “Proclamation by the Governor,” August 5, 1857, http://bit.ly/2lUTrRu.

Bagley, Will. Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Mountain Meadows. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002.

Bagley, Will. “Wild West: The Legacy of Mountain Meadows,” Wild West, October 2007, http://www.historynet.com/mountain-meadows-massacre.

Lund, Steven E.The Utah War & Mountain Meadows Massacre,” presentation to the members of the Highland Utah Stake in Alpine, Utah, March 10, 2017.

Ravitz, Jessica. “LDS Church apologizes for Mountain Meadows Massacre,” The Salt Lake City Tribune, September 11, 2007, http://bit.ly/2pD7f61.

Salt Lake Comic Con

by GEORGE W. KOUNALIS

In August 2013, The Salt Lake Tribune reported that Salt Lake Comic Con was projected to break inaugural convention attendance records with a low-end estimate of 40,000 attendees. That September, 72,000 comic fans showed up to the premier convention, according to Salt Lake Comic Con’s own statistics. These numbers speak volumes to the fandom phenomena taking place across the United States as well as in Utah. According to Jeffrey A. Brown, author of Comic Book Fandom and Cultural Capital, “Cons often appeal to a much wider range of fandom than just the comic book enthusiast.” (Brown, 17) The Geek Phenomenon is one that is becoming mainstream in American culture, with Utah being cited as the “nerdiest state in the country,” according to a 2014 piece in Time. Dan Farr and Bryan Brandenburg, the two forces behind organizing Salt Lake Comic Con and its current directors, have created Utah’s biggest convention in the state’s history.

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The vendor floor of the Salt Lake Comic Con, September 2013. Photo by George W. Kounalis.

Salt Lake Comic Con’s inaugural event had many guests of honor, including actors Adam West, William Shatner, and Henry Winkler, and comic-book writer Stan Lee. The initial event also boasted many vendors and artists from a wide range of fandoms. To the uninitiated, fandoms are the driving force of a comic con. The term is used to describe the groups of people who are fans of certain TV shows or other geek groups. The diverse amount of vendors, artists, and guests attracted thousands of Utah’s “geekiest” to the Salt Palace Convention Center in Salt Lake City.

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A panoramic view of the Salt Lake Comic Con vendor floor, September 2014. Photo by George W. Kounalis.

The event lasted from September 5-7, 2013. According to the Deseret News, “Fans reported waiting in line for as much as four hours Saturday just to get into the front door to catch the last of the three-day convention.” Ticket sales on that Saturday topped 50,000, with the event being declared as sold out and the Salt Lake County fire marshal limiting the number of people allowed in the Salt Palace. This means, according to The Salt Lake Tribune, that Salt Lake Comic Con’s inaugural event was bigger than the popular Outdoor Retailer show. (McFall) On August 30, 2013, The Salt Lake Tribune quoted one of the convention’s cofounders, Bryan Brandenburg, as saying, “Not only will we increase local participation by 50 to 100 percent, but based on analytics, we are going to be another San Diego Comic-Con.”

Salt Lake Comic Con’s next event, FanXperience 2014, hosted 100,000 people, making it the new biggest convention in Utah. According to Salt Lake Comic Con’s own website, event attendance has continued to grow with each additional convention.

The Salt Lake Tribune, in a story published on September 3, 2014, cited Salt Lake Comic Con’s statistics to illustrate the event’s popularity: “Attendees at FanX came into Salt Lake City from all but two U.S. states.” This suggests that the impact of Salt Lake Comic Con is reaching beyond Salt Lake County. The reporter also noted: “While only 15 percent of the registered guests at last year’s Comic Con were from outside of Salt Lake County, Farr says that number is showing a steady uptick.” Comic Con has been growing since its inaugural convention and is beginning to show an impact on businesses in downtown Salt Lake City.

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A group of cosplayers have fun at the September 2014 Salt Lake Comic Con. Photo by George W. Kounalis.

Salt Lake Comic Con’s initial convention included many panels on a wide variety of topics, including “How to Get on a Reality TV Show,” and featured numerous film/TV workshops and a Cosplay Contest. “Cosplay” is a term that is the fusion of costume and play. In
“geekdom,” the term is used to describe costuming as a character from a piece of visual media. The convention’s ability to give people access to these sorts of events is one of the many reasons that Salt Lake Comic Con has grown exponentially over the years. Attendees also have opportunities to get autographs and photos (for a fee of $20 or more) and greet the stars who are present.

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From left: Tom Kenny, Jeff Zannini, Jess Harnell, Grey DeLisle, and Bill Farmer participate in the Twisted Toonz Panel at Salt Lake Comic Con FanX, 2016. Photo courtesy of Dan Adams.

Prior to Salt Lake Comic Con’s 2014 event, San Diego Comic-Con notified Salt Lake Comic Con that it was suing for trademark infringement and false designation of origin. The Deseret News reported on August 8, 2014, that Dan Farr and Bryan Brandenburg denied dropping the Salt Lake Comic Con name and said, “We feel very strong that we’re not doing anything that everyone else isn’t doing.” The Deseret News also reported that “Salt Lake Comic Con is among dozens of conventions across the country and the world that brand their events as comic cons. San Diego Comic-Con holds the trademark on ‘Comic-Con’ with a hyphen, but abandoned its 1995 bid for the rights to ‘Comic Con,’ with a space.” In May 2016, according to Salt Lake Comic Con’s website, both San Diego Comic-Con and Salt Lake Comic Con requested an extension for the lawsuit. Dan Farr and Dan Farr Productions are arguing that they obtained a trademark for Salt Lake Comic Con and that many other events use the term comic con in their name.

In February 2017, The Salt Lake Tribune reported that Emerald Expositions, the company that owns the Outdoor Retailer show, would no longer hold its massive, twice-yearly shows in Salt Lake City. In response, Bryan Brandenburg wrote an open letter on LinkedIn regarding the situation and how Salt Lake Comic Con can fill in the shoes of the Outdoor Retailer Expo. In his letter he cites how the state’s tax credits for filmmaking in Utah has created the perfect environment for Salt Lake Comic Con to grow. Brandenberg writes, “We believe we can build something that will have much more impact if we are able to line up the type of support that Outdoor Retailers had here. Salt Lake Comic Con is only three years old and we’ve already helped generated tens of millions of dollars in economic impact to the area.” Requesting the support from the state of Utah could fill in the shoes of the Outdoor Retailer Expo and allow Salt Lake Comic Con to become the number 3 comic convention in the United States behind San Diego Comic-Con and New York Comic Con.

Salt Lake Comic Con is currently the largest convention in the state of Utah and has set a new precedent for Geek culture in the state. Even though the con is only about 3.5 years old, the impact of it is being seen across the state. With the Outdoor Retailer Expo making the decision to leave in February 2017, Salt Lake Comic Con has been put in a position to fill in those shoes and has the potential to become bigger.

I interviewed Dan Farr at the most recent event on March 17, 2017, regarding the Outdoor Retailer Expo leaving Utah and he had the following to say, “We would like to be something like South by Southwest, which is a fan festival for music. If we can turn it [Salt Lake Comic Con] into something like that here, we can have hundreds of millions brought into the state.”  This convention matters because it is one of the biggest events in the state and will continue to be so. The impact of events such as Comic Con bring new people into geekdom and allow the community to be put on the map for other geek events. It also allows Utah to expand connections with the entertainment industry.

George W. Kounalis is a junior at The University of Utah. He is majoring in journalism with a minor in music technology.

Sources

George Kounalis, interview with Dan Farr, recorded March 17, 2017, http://bit.ly/2nwDYGy.

Salt Lake Comic Con, “San Diego Comic-Con International vs. Salt Lake Comic Con,” accessed March 14, 2017, http://bit.ly/2mSLQkG

Bryan Brandenburg, “Salt Lake Comic Con Can Fill the Void of Outdoor Retailers Exit,” LinkedIn, February 24, 2017.

Salt Lake Comic Con, accessed February 23, 2017, http://bit.ly/2m4Jv8L

Michael McFall, “Comic Con delivers fans, but does it deliver dollars?” The Salt Lake Tribune, September 3, 2014.

McKenzie Romero, “San Diego Comic-Con strikes back: Lawsuit filed against growing S.L. convention,” The Deseret News, August 8, 2014.

Nolan Feeney, “This is the nerdiest state in America,” Time, April 26, 2014.

Matthew Piper, “Salt Lake Comic Con organizers have San Diego in their sights,” The Salt Lake Tribune, September 11, 2013.

Program, Salt Lake Comic Con 2013, September 5-7, 2013.

Matthew Piper, “Salt Lake City is poised to challenge first-year comic con records,” The Salt Lake Tribune, August 30, 2013.

Alberty, Erin. “Outdoor Retailer is leaving Utah over public lands issues, a move Herbert calls ‘offensive.'” The Salt Lake Tribune, February 17, 2017, http://bit.ly/2m1xxJx.

Brown, Jeffrey. “Comic Book Fandom and Cultural Capital,” The Journal of Popular Culture 30, no. 4 (March 1997): 13-31.

Wright, Bradford. Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 2003.

A Quest for Speed: Athol Graham and His Home-Built Racer

by JOSIAH JOHNSON

Every late summer, as winter and spring runoff evaporates from the salt beds of the Great Salt Lake Desert, a site is revealed. (Hogue, 38) A site with great history, both of peril and excitement. A place so flat you can see the curvature of the earth with the naked eye. (Hogue, 32) And a place where highest speeds are most attainable.

The vast and desolate Bonneville Salt Flats are located on the western edge of Utah’s Great Salt Lake Basin. According to the Bureau of Land Management, which oversees it, the area occupies 30,000 acres; that is 12 miles long, five miles wide and over 46 square miles in total. The Salt Flats are primarily made up of leftover minerals from what was once ancient Lake Bonneville. (Bonneville Salt Flats Brochure)

In his Utah History Encyclopedia entry, Kevin Hallaran credits Jedediah Smith as being “the first white man to cross the salt flats.” He did so in 1827 on the way back from an expedition to California. In 1833, fellow trapper Joseph Reddeford Walker explored and mapped the Great Salt Lake area, naming the salt flats after his employer, Benjamin Bonneville. Hallaran also notes that the early history of the Bonneville Salt Flats even includes the demise of the 1846 Donner-Reed Party who, after getting stuck in the mud on the Flats, later perished in the Sierra-Nevada mountains.

Perhaps a more well-known association, however, is that of its racing history. The Bonneville Salt Flats were first promoted as a racing venue by William Randolph Hearst with little success, until, in 1925, Ab Jenkins raced a train across the Flats in his Studebaker and won. (Hallaran) In a piece for Landscape Journal, Martin Hogue explains that as automobile racing grew in popularity (and speeds), Bonneville became a racing mecca for its various racing qualities. In the 1920s, cars started to be designed with the land speed record in mind, and between the years 1935 and 1970, the land speed record was broken at Bonneville no less than 18 times. (Hogue, 32-33)

On August 24, 1939, The New York Times reported that British racer John Cobb had set a new land speed record at 368.85 mph. Cobb would return to Bonneville multiple times, and in 1947 he raised the record to 394 mph. That record would stand for over a decade and, as can be seen through many Salt Lake Tribune articles, was on the minds of all participants leading up to the 1960 racing season.

One of those racers with his eye fixed on the land speed record was 35-year-old Salt Lake City “garageman” Athol Graham. According to a Salt Lake Tribune article published November 28, 1959, Graham had been planning his land speed record attempt for 12 years. His home-built racer was made from an old B29 belly tank and powered by a 12-cyllinder Allison aircraft engine capable of 3000 horsepower. After a horrible first attempt in 1958, Graham rebuilt the car completely. (Hawley, 25) In early 1959, it reached 280 mph before experiencing mechanical problems. For his attempts in November of the same year, Graham requested no spectators.

GrahamsCityofSaltLake

Athol Graham’s home-built racer, the “City of Salt Lake,” on the Bonneville Salt Flats of western Utah. Used by permission, Utah State Historical Society.

Athol Graham’s quest for speed and obsession over the record had roots that ran deep. As a boy, his interest in racing was piqued after watching British racers on the Flats, according to a Salt Lake Tribune article published August 1, 1960. “I’d get goose pimples reading about them and I always imagined myself out there driving one of those beautiful cars across the salt,” Graham once said. (Hawley, 24)

On November 30, 1959, Tom Korologos of the Salt Lake Tribune reported that Graham’s “City of Salt Lake” missed the speed mark despite averaging 307 mph over two runs. Mechanical trials were once again a factor. In a statement for the paper, Graham said, “I’ve still got confidence that I can break the record but it looks as though we’re finished for this year.”

Dates for the 1960 season were announced in the Salt Lake Tribune on January 16, 1960. Graham was originally scheduled for the second block of attempts from August first through the fourth, and, after his run a few months before, Graham was listed as the fastest driver behind Mikey Thompson. In July 1960, the Tribune reported that fellow Salt Laker Marv Jenkins had surrendered his time slot, meaning that Graham and his rear-wheel-racer would have the first shot at the record in 1960.

In his book, Speed Duel, author Samuel Hawley highlights the giant expectations for the summer of 1960. High-profile racers, namely Thompson and Donald Campbell, would be returning to the Flats, and newcomer Nathan Ostich would be racing a jet-propelled car for the first time. (23) Bill Dredge of The New York Times referred to Athol Graham as the “Cinderella boy of the salt beds” and said of him, “He has no other pretentions than an ability to ramble down the salt bed faster than anyone believed he could.”

Graham was the obvious underdog. His home-built racer cost $2,500 but would be competing against Campbell’s Bluebird, a car with a $3 million price tag and support of 69 British companies, according to Marion Dunn, a sports writer for The Salt Lake Tribune. (July 10, 1960)

Buzz in local newspapers was especially focused around Graham, and numerous Salt Lake Tribune articles were published leading up to his record attempt in 1960. In addition to owning Canyon Motors, a Salt Lake City garage, Graham was a devout Mormon who served a mission to New Zealand. He also enlisted in the United States Army motor pool where he used his mechanic skills in WW II. (Hawley, 24) After returning from the war, he married his wife, Zeldine, and began building his racer. (“Whodunnit”)

As the first day of August approached, salt ripples on the Flats became a concern. Dave Mead, another sports writer for The Salt Lake Tribune, reported on July 27, 1960, that the “flats are not good enough for racing” and that “heat has severely buckled the course.” Just a day before, Graham had unveiled his newly improved racer with new Firestone tires and wheels (the source of previous failure), a stiffened body and frame, a rebuilt tail section and locked differential. According to Mead, Graham had three truckloads of spare parts with him, just in case.

It was becoming uncertain if the course would be fit to use, but “Graham himself ended that doubt,” reported the Tribune on July 28, 1960. After crews did their best to scrape and repair the two miles of ripples leading up to the measured mile-long course, Graham walked the stretch and said he would race.

The night before what he referred to as Graham’s “four-day date with destiny on the Bonneville Salt Flats,” Marion Dunn interviewed the Salt Lake City racer at his motel room in Wendover. “I feel that we’ll get the record,” Graham said, “but I certainly wish that all the people would say a prayer or two for me.” (“Graham Slates Record Assault”)

Graham planned to make his first pass at 9 a.m. on Monday, August 1, 1960, and told Dunn he would pack up and head home if his two-run average set a new record. (“Graham Plans Fast Halt”) According to the Tribune’s report on August 2, weather was once again a factor as gusty winds of 22 mph postponed the morning start.

Before the attempt, Graham told race spectators not to be alarmed if his bright red City of Salt Lake went into an early skid. (“300 mph Crash”) If Graham succeeded in reaching the coveted speed mark of 400 mph, he would be the first American to hold the land speed record since Ray Keech achieved it 32 years before, according to The Salt Lake Tribune. (August 1, 1960)

In the book Speed Duel, Samuel Hawley wrote of a final interaction that Graham had with his wife before setting off down the course in pursuit of his speed dream. Hawley described it as a private moment where the couple kissed and Athol said, “See you at the other end.” (Hawley, 30) It was later reported by The Salt Lake Tribune that Zeldine planned to make a run of her own for a 300-mph mark if the car ran well. (“300 mph Crash”)

Graham climbed into the cockpit of his race car around 11 a.m., got the engine running and, with a little help from his young assistant, Otto Anzjon, was closed in by the canopy. Soon, Graham was off, cruising across the salt, picking up speed as he went. (Hawley, 30) He made it nearly to the halfway mark before the measured mile before disaster struck. (“300 mph Crash”) An excerpt from the August 2 edition of The Salt Lake Tribune described the scene saying that “within seconds, his handmade racer skidded and flipped end-over-end at 300 miles an hour.” The New York Times reported that the accident took place at 11:02 a.m.

Borge Anderson, a photographer for the Tribune, and Marion Dunn were among the first to arrive at the scene of the crash, 600 yards from where spectators stood. (“Eyewitness Tells of Crash”) In his eyewitness account for The Salt Lake Tribune that ran on August 2, Dunn described the series of events beginning with seeing objects flying off the car. The City of Salt Lake then slid sideways, went airborne, landed on its top, bounced, landed on its top once more and slid to a stop, pinning Graham inside. When he arrived at the scene, Dunn believed Graham to be dead already.

Graham was removed from the mangled car and flown to a Salt Lake City area hospital. Just one hour after the crash, around 12:20 p.m. on August 1, 1960, Athol Graham died of extensive head, neck and chest injuries, according to the front-page story printed in The Salt Lake Tribune the following day. The local racer was survived by his 29-year-old wife and their four children. (“300 mph Crash”)

According to The Salt Lake Tribune, Athol Graham was the first driver to be killed on the Bonneville Salt Flats in a land speed record attempt. There is speculation, of course, but officials did not believe that the winds or the course had anything to do with the crash. (“300 mph Crash”) In the same Tribune article, Joe Petrall, an official observer representing the U.S. Auto Club, was quoted as saying, “It looked as if Graham was accelerating very fast and the rear wheels were beginning to spin forward throwing the car sideways before it flipped end over end.” Many sources, including an article for Motorsports Magazine recounting the tragedy, claim there was no safety harness in the home-built race car.

Athol Graham’s fellow racers were disheartened by the event, and Mickey Thompson was himself one of the 25 men who helped remove Graham from the crashed vehicle. Dr. Nathan Ostich was quoted in The Salt Lake Tribune as saying he was “deeply shocked” by the fatal accident but would still race. (“Race Season to Continue”) In one of the many Salt Lake Tribune articles published on August 2, it was reported that W. R. Shadoff would take over Graham’s racing dates. (“New Record Try”)

Many tragic ironies came to light following Graham’s death. According to Hawley in Speed Duel, August 2, 1960, would have been Athol and Zeldine’s tenth wedding anniversary. Hawley also noted that, on his comparatively minuscule racing budget, Graham couldn’t afford the $150 to have a doctor on site at the record attempt that morning.

In his article for Motorsports Magazine fittingly titled “Ghosts in the machine,” Peter Holthusen briefly discussed the fate of Graham’s racer, the City of Salt Lake. The year after the fatal crash and death of Graham, Otto Anzjon convinced Zeldine to let him rebuild and race Graham’s car. The 17-year-old mechanic got the car up to 254 mph before a tire blowout led to a crash during another record attempt. On October 12, 1963, Zeldine’s second husband, Harry Muhlbach, ran the rebuilt racer once more, only to result in yet another crash. After countless mechanical problems, rebuilds and three crashes, sponsors STP and Firestone withdrew all support of the project.

Graham’s City of Salt Lake would be rebuilt one last time, this time by Athol’s only son, Butch. In July 2010, KSL News reported on the unveiling of the 27-year-long restoration project. The car was put on display at Orthopedic Specialty Hospital in Murray for the 50th anniversary of Athol Graham’s fateful day. More than 100 people came to see it, according to the article by Alex Cabrero. (“Man Restores Race Car”)

Though the crash and death of Athol Graham in 1960 stained the site with tragedy, the legacy and spectacle of the Bonneville Salt Flats carries on as a world-famous site for racing. Many “speed freaks” have forgotten, or perhaps never even heard of Salt Lake City “garageman” Athol Graham, but his story speaks to the real consequences of speed-related sports and activities.

Despite the dangers, racers from around the world continue to push themselves to the fastest speeds, and some do so on the salt in westernmost Utah. Speed Week is still an annual event at the Bonneville Salt Flats, attracting racers and racing fans alike. As much as the geography itself, legendary racers like Athol Graham, John Cobb, Mickey Thompson and others have done their part to make the Bonneville Salt Flats a premier, world-renowned racing destination. As a result, men and women are still inspired to embark on their own quests for speed.

Josiah Johnson, a student of strategic communication at The University of Utah, graduated with his Bachelor of Science in May 2017. His interest in automotive culture has been increasingly inspired by his younger brother, Jeremiah, to whom this article is dedicated. Josiah has a passion for art, design and creative communication, and he hopes to travel the world observing it.

Sources

Alex Cabrero, “Man Restores Race Car in Father’s Honor,” KSL News Online, July 31, 2010, http://bit.ly/2oSKU4r

“Driver Killed in Bid for 400 M.P.H. on Salt Flats,” The New York Times, August 2, 1960, 36.

“New Record Try Looms Today,” The Salt Lake Tribune, August 2, 1960, 17.

“Race Season to Continue,” The Salt Lake Tribune, August 2, 1960, 17.

Marion Dunn, “Whodunnit,” The Salt Lake Tribune, August 2, 1960, 15.

“300 MPH Crash Kills S.L. Racer,” The Salt Lake Tribune, August 2, 1960, 1, 5.

Marion Dunn, “Eyewitness Tells of Crash,” The Salt Lake Tribune, August 2, 1960, 1.

Marion Dunn, “Graham Slates Record Assault,” The Salt Lake Tribune, August 1, 1960, 24.

Marion Dunn, “Graham Sets First Dash Across Flats,” The Salt Lake Tribune, July 31, 1960, D5.

Marion Dunn, “Graham Plans Fast Halt When, If, Record Falls,” The Salt Lake Tribune, July 29, 1960, D5.

“Graham Seeks Land Mark Monday,” The Salt Lake Tribune, July 28, 1960, 26.

Dave Mead, “Salt Ripples May Halt Graham Run,” The Salt Lake Tribune, July 27, 1960, 19.

Marion Dunn, “Drivers Set for Speed Shots,” The Salt Lake Tribune, July 10, 1960, B9.

Bill Dredge, “1960 Goal for Salt Flat Races,” The New York Times, April 17, 1960, A14.

“Race Dates Set for Flats in ’60,” The Salt Lake Tribune, January 16, 1960, 19.

Tom Korologos, “Auto Speed Mark Eludes Salt Laker,” The Salt Lake Tribune, November 30, 1959, 35.

“Salt Laker Maps Assault on Auto Speed Record,” The Salt Lake Tribune, November 28, 1959, 21.

Associated Press, “Cobb’s Red Lion Roars to World Land Speed Record on Utah Flats,” The New York Times, August 24, 1939, 30.

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Bonneville Salt Flats Brochure, https://on.doi.gov/2p11Hix

Hawley, Samuel. Speed Duel: The Inside Story of the Land Speed Record in the Sixties. Buffalo, New York: Firefly Books, 2010.

Hogue, Martin. “A Site Constructed: The Bonneville Salt Flats and the Land Speed Record, 1935-1970.” Landscape Journal 24, no. 1 (March 2005): 32-49.

Holthusen, Peter. “Ghosts in the machine,” Motorsports Magazine, April 2002: 68-72.

Hallaran, Kevin B. “Bonneville Salt Flats,” Utah History to Go, http://bit.ly/2lEMktJ