The Flaming Gorge Dam Power Lines: Good for Utah, or a Needless Tax Burden?

By Martin Kuprianowicz

In 1956, Congress authorized the Colorado River Storage Project, which called for the construction of four large dams: Glen Canyon Dam in Page, Arizona, Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in northeastern Utah, Curecanti Dam on the Gunnison River in western Colorado, and the Navajo Dam on the San Juan River in northwestern New Mexico. The plan, approved by Congress, provided a financing system which would return to the taxpayers the full cost of these dams and participating projects over an 86-year period.

The project was designed to promote irrigation and water control, but most importantly it was to provide electricity. For most of the revenue to “pay out,” the cost would come from the sale of the electric energy produced by these dams to publically-owned, consumer-owned, and privately-owned utilities. However, the public was not entirely in favor of this latest federal construction project, and a letter to the editor in the May 16, 1961, issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle labeled it as “a tremendous sum of money” which could be easily saved if only private companies were allowed to build the powerlines, and not the federal government itself.

The main purpose of this project was to provide more people with electricity. An article in the February 23, 1961, edition of The Murray Eagle headlined “Power Officials Addresses Murray Rotarians Monday” said that the development of electricity paved the way for creation and use of the thousands of devices and appliances in Utah. These powerlines, as argued by the federal power official, were a step forward for Americans and modern-day humans.

In March 1961, The Salt Lake Times reported that Rep. David S. King called upon Interior Secretary Stewart L. Udall to give congress revised budget requests, claiming that the current budget requests were not “appropriate to the plan of an all-federal transmission system,” originally endorsed by the Eisenhower Administration. At this time, the powerlines from Flaming Gorge to Vernal, Utah and the powerlines from Vernal to Colorado were already under construction, but were projected to exceed the originally proposed budget.

In June 1961, the front page of The Lehi Free Press described Lehi Mayor Harold D. Westering’s effort to gain more funds for the Flaming Gorge powerlines project, as the city council at the time was arguing that the originally proposed budget plan was not realistic to the actual costs of the project. The mayor met with congressmen in Washington DC such as Senator Moss and Congressman King, in an attempt to gain more funds for the construction of the powerlines from Flaming Gorge. The congressmen sent letters back to the mayor and other Utah officials explaining the advantage of Utah having these federal powerlines.

By September 1961, a compromise was reached on the budget plan for the construction plan of the federal powerlines, according to the front page of the September 25, 1961, issue of The Provo Daily Herald. A report ordered by interior secretary Stewart L. Udall and the Bureau of Reclamation called to “exhaust every possible effort” to work in cooperation with private utilities and to report back on the federal projects progress by February 15, 1962.

Construction of the Flaming Gorge Dam was successfully completed on August 17, 1964. Without the building of these federal powerlines, Utah may not have developed as swiftly as it has. The Salt Lake Valley is one of the most developed and modernized regions in Utah, and this is greatly due to the consistent and powerful flow of electricity to the region. Now, we are seeing a major transformation in the Salt Lake Valley as major technology companies are relocating to Utah and building headquarters here. Had the construction of the federal powerlines from the Flaming Gorge dam been postponed or never happened, the Salt Lake Valley may not be the technological, industrial, and cultural hub that it is today. It may have been playing “catch up” with surrounding states with more prevalent access to vast quantities of electrical power, and look very different today.

Martin Kuprianowicz is a senior at the University of Utah. He is majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism and minoring in Spanish.

Primary Sources

“Contract Awarded for Generators at Flaming Gorge,” Provo Sunday Herald, January 22, 1961, 2.

“Power Official Addresses Murray Rotarians Monday,” Murray Eagle, February 23, 1961, 9.

“King Requests Udall Revise Budget for Transmission Systems,” Salt Lake Times, March 17, 1961, 3.

Johnson, T. S., Letter to The Editor: “Proper Power?” Utah Daily Chronicle, May 16, 1961, 2.

“Council Hears Mayor on Washington Trip; Takes Action on Lehi Freeway,” Lehi Free Press, June 15, 1961, 1.

Dominy, F. E., “Bureau of Reclamation Work in the Colorado River Basin,” Bureau of Reclamation, Upper Colorado River Office, June 29, 1961.

Lammi, E. W., “All-Federal Power Line Is Approved,” Provo Daily Herald, September 25, 1961, 1.

Secondary Source

Udall, Morris K. Those Glen Canyon Transmission Lines – Some Facts and Figures on a Bitter Dispute, July 1961.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘Woman Power — Our Great Resource for Progress’ Lecture by Esther Peterson on the University of Utah Campus

By Casey Stevenson

Peterson1

A portrait of Esther Peterson, assistant secretary of labor, taken by a Salt Lake Tribune photographer for a March 1962 issue of the newspaper.

Esther Peterson, a former Utah resident, who made so many significant contributions on behalf of workers, consumers and women in so many diverse areas, including government, civic and business. Peterson was a forceful lobbyist and had been the assistant secretary of labor under President Kennedy. She came to The University of Utah to give a lecture that took place on March 1, 1962, it was titled, “Women Power – Our Great Resource for Progress.” Peterson wrote in her article, “Change and Challenge to Women in Education, “my concern lies with the new needs of students, particularly girls and young women, whose problems are far different from those of their mothers’ generation,” which greatly correlates with her topic for her University of Utah lecture. She was interested in what the people had to say, and any chance she got to get insight on pending proposals she took advantage of. With these traits Peterson had, nobody was surprised when she titled her autobiography Restless.

The Daily Utah Chronicle reported on February 27, 1962, that the talk would be held in the Orson Spencer Hall auditorium, under the auspices of the University faculty women. Her position as the assistant secretary of labor and director of the U.S. Women’s Bureau was mentioned as well as her position as the assistant director of education. The former Utah resident was also was an advisor to the United States delegation at the International Labor Organization Conference in Geneva, Switzerland.

On February 28, 1962, the Daily Utah Chronicle wrote about Peterson’s devotion to the labor movement and education, and after 12 years of teaching was appointed director of education for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Formerly she was the legislative representative of the Industrial Union Department of AFL-CIO. She was involved in other abroad experiences including serving in Sweden to study labor market policy and labor management relations.

It was reported by the Daily Utah Chronicle, on March 1, 1962, that Peterson would be presenting that night on campus. It was explained that after her 12-year teaching career, she had several posts with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America from 1939 to 1948. She had been accompanied while abroad by her husband who was a foreign service officer. Oliver A. Peterson was also a labor advisor in the State Department’s Bureau of African Affairs.

Peterson2

A photo of Esther Peterson and colleagues, taken by a Salt Lake Tribune photographer for a September 1961 issue of the newspaper.

Again, on March 1, 1962, the day of Peterson’s visit to the University of Utah, the Daily Utah Chronicle wrote another article about Peterson and her position. They reported that her visit is taking place just three weeks after President Kennedy’s first meeting about the newly established Commission on the Status of Women. Peterson’s concern is with women, college women in particular. She was being brought to the University as an example of someone who is a successful wife and mother but who is also quite the intellectual and contribution to society. She is being placed as an example for young women to strive to have an intellectual and meaningful life after she is done having children. The chronicle wrote that average women’s life expectancy after her youngest child is grown, was only 30 years. After their child is grown women are left wondering if she is even useful anymore. Peterson’s example was being portrayed as one to follow for young college women of her time.

The day following Peterson’s visit, March 2, 1962, the Daily Utah Chronicle wrote an article about the event. Peterson emphasized that, “our great resource for progress in womanpower.” She’s trying to explain that college is a huge investment and that she doesn’t want to see women’s usefulness be wasted after they receive their cap and gown. Her lecture was given to a select audience of civic and educational leaders of the state.

An article in the Davis County Clipper, written on January 24, 1964 explains that as Peterson was already one of the most well-known women in Washington, she would soon be the best-known woman throughout the entire nation. She was also the highest government office of her gender at the time and is only getting more popular. She held three major positions one including the position that was previously held by the late Eleanor Roosevelt, executive vice chairman of the President’s Commission on the Status of Women. At the time of the article, Peterson had just been assigned by President Kennedy to ensure that the consumers voices are heard and effective in the highest council of the federal government.

Esther Peterson was a successful director of education, assistant secretary of labor, director of the U.S. Women’s Bureau, legislative representative of the Industrial Union Department, just to name a few of her accomplishments and her undeniable personality and care for the people had a huge impact on the people around the country. Her message speaks loud and clear, don’t take your education lightly, it is an investment so don’t waste it. Use this privilege we have to an education and make a difference in the lives of the people around you. Make sure your usefulness doesn’t run out.

Casey Stevenson is a sophomore at The University of Utah. She is majoring in strategic communication.

Primary Sources

Labor Official Sets Talk on ‘Woman Power,’” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 26, 1962, 1.

Woman-Power Topics Labor Official’s Talk,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 28, 1962, 1.

Former Utahn Readies ‘Power’ Talk,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 1, 1962, 1.

Climate Of Unexpectation…,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 1, 1962, 2.

Jan Peterson, “Womanpower: Resource For Future Progress,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 2, 1962, 1.

Bert Mills, “Esther Peterson Becomes Well Known,” Davis County Clipper, January 24, 1964, 6.

Secondary Source

Peterson, Esther. “Change and Challenge to Women in Education.” Educational Horizon 42, no. 2 (Winter 1963): 52-59

 

The Trial of Jesse Garcia

By June Sim

The United States is known to be one of the countries that still continues capital punishment. The incarceration rate in America is 15 times higher than that of other developed countries. (The British Journal of Criminology, p.97) It seems like the justice system is carrying out its purpose well, punishing those who need to be punished. However, unlike our expectation, there are findings that show races of convicts impact the outcome at the court. In other words, races of the convicts can lessen or increase the sentences when only the actions need to be considered. (The British Journal of Criminology, p.97) Such tendency is thought to be shown in a juvenile’s case back in 1962 at Jesse M. Garcia’s trial.

sim1

Letters to the Editor of The Daily Utah Chronicle debated Garcia’s death-penalty sentence.

Jesse M. Garcia, a Mexican-American boy, faced his trial at the age of 16. While growing up, his life was full of sadness. His family was so poor that they had no food to comfort themselves. Young Jessie would always fall asleep wondering when he could eat something again. His parents were busy and so there were no adults to keep him safe and stable which lead to an unfortunate accident. (Daily Utah Chronicle, 1962) As reported by Daily Utah Chronicle on February 14, 1962, Jessie was running after a bouncing ball and accidentally killed his niece by crushing her. The accident could have been prevented if there were adults at home. At that time, the occurrence was dismissed as the accident was thought to be unintentional. However, many years later, when he got involved in his biggest trouble, this tragic accident was brought up again saying that the accident may have been intentional.

Jessie Garcia faced his biggest trouble when he got involved in a murder case. Daily Utah Chronicle reported on February 15, 1962 that an inmate was found to be murdered in prison. Due to this incident, the reality of life in prison was also revealed to the world. At the time, prisoners in the Utah State Prison could easily trade drugs, carry weapons, and inhumanely treat other inmates. As suspects of the brutal murder, three convicts were brought up, Jesse Garcia, Mack Merrill Rivenburgh, and Leonard Warner Bowne. The murder case was not handled thoroughly and the evidences of the murder were not clear. However, the press was only in a hurry to cover the shocking conditions of the prisons, neglecting the important facets of the murder case. Bowne and Garcia continuously claimed of their innocence by mentioning the level of cruelty of their actions, and their lack of intention in the murder. But their claims were not considered. Eventually, Rivenburgh and Garcia were given death penalty whereas Bowne was sentenced to life imprisonment.

sim2

On February 12, 1962, Daily Utah Chronicle reported that Garcia’s death became one of the crucial points in debate on capital punishment among those who believe capital punishment needs to be abolished. Garcia grew up in a very economically unstable environment. From an early age, Garcia had to struggle from a constant hunger and insecurity. Family wasn’t there to help him and serve as a buffer from the harsh world that Garcia had to face. His parents were too busy to take care of him. In such condition, Garcia got easily exposed to committing crimes which eventually lead to a murder case.

On February 16, 1962, the Daily Utah Chronicle mentioned Garcia’s murder case from a racial perspective by comparing Garcia and Bowne. It was said that the stereotype on race brought different outcomes to the same crime. Garcia’s features as Mexican and growing up from an unstable background led the jury to think that Garcia has less chance of being rehabilitated than Bowne. On the other hand, Bowne was considered as a trustee while in the jail. It was reported that this may be because Bowne was a typical western boy with outstanding musical talent who grew up in stable background which made the jury see Bowne more favorably than Garcia. In other words, there may have been things other than the crime itself that punished Garcia heavily than Bowne. Without recommendation of leniency, Garcia was convicted of first degree murder. (The Salt Lake Tribune, 1962)

On Jessie Garcia’s case, people’s opinions vary. Some say that the case is an example of racial discrimination and that the legal process of the case should be analyzed critically. Others say the case was fairly handled as Rivenburg, one of three convicts, was also given a death sentence despite of being white. It is still questionable whether Jessie Garcia’s sentence was justifiable. If the legal system processed the case under bias on Garcia, then it would mean an unequal punishment and people of color would be furious about this. In that case, resolutions are needed to resolve any flaws in the legal system. When it comes to trial and punishment, race can be a very sensitive topic to talk about. However, as long as America is full of people with diverse racial backgrounds, race is something that people will always talk about imposing suspicion on the fairness of the trial outcomes. Therefore, whether race factor was involved in past cases or not, to prevent any future cases from being impacted by the race factor, resolutions such as criminals’ right to avoid judges of certain races should be considered so that people would not get suspicious on the legal process.

June Sim is a junior at the University of Utah. She is currently majoring in communication with an emphasis in strategic communication.

Primary Sources

Tragedy Of Jesse Garcia Reflects A Displaced People,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 12, 1962, 2.

Ethel C. Hale, “Garcia’s Life Marred By Sequence of Betrayals,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 14, 1962, 2.

Ethel C. Hale, “Garcia Met With Crime At Prison, Prejudice At Court,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 15, 1962, 2.

Ethel C. Hale, “Sign Of Bias Seen In Garcia-Bowne Comparison,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 16, 1962, 2.

Fred Glauser, “Stigma On State,” The Salt Lake Tribune, March 15, 1962, 18D.

Secondary Source

Tonry, Michael. “Racial Disproportion In U.S. Prisons,” British Journal of Criminology 34 (Spring 1994): 97-115.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Importance of Federal Funding for Education: Dean Jack H. Adamson Advocates for Students at the University of Utah in 1962

By Michelle Saucedo

Education is an important factor in how individuals pursue and achieve their academical goals. It is also significant as it contributes and creates a path for students to succeed. However, education at a higher level, specifically college, is not affordable by a majority of people in the United States. College education can be broad, offering degrees from arts, engineering, and language to many other areas. It is a community and space where students understand their academic purpose. Although education is accessible, it is only obtainable through tuition payments, which cover fees and courses. Having the desire to pursue an academic goal through attending classes, covering other expenses such as school fees, books and supplies is highly important as well. As these create and ensure that students obtain and have a successful educational experience.

adamson

Dean Jack H. Adamson, pictured in a January 1962 issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle, was a guest speaker during the Greek Lyceum fair.

To this day, however students struggle to finance their education careers. In fact, a majority of students enroll in a university or college through financial aid, scholarships, private loans and at times with personal life savings. Federal funding programs such as financial aid, offer scholarships, Pell grants, and loans to students who struggle to pay tuition rates from their first year of school to their graduation expected date. This funding is available for students after they complete and process an application that requires a background check in their yearly income, filling out family information and submitting official documents. Students who then qualify are able to afford and pay for tuition each year through the available funds that the program offers for each individual. Numerous universities all over the United States also provide scholarships for incoming and enrolled students. However, not all students with an ambition of pursuing a college degree can afford tuition or qualify for local, school or private scholarships.

In 1962, through the Greek Lyceum fair on campus at the University of Utah, the idea of increased role of the federal aid in colleges was presented by Dr. Jack Adamson. As the Dean of the College of Letters and Science, Dr. Adamson, discussed with students at the time about the significance of funding programs focused on science, engineering and technology. Particularly, after Sputnik in 1957. The Sputnik Satellite was created by the Soviet Union, and it demonstrated that the Soviet Union was highly in advantage through its technology programs and innovations, in contrast to the United States. Creating a concern on how the United States was focusing federal funding, specifically for education purposes. Through this discussion at the University of Utah, Adamson created awareness and students were able to understand how important it was having fund directed to science, engineering, and technology. If funding was not being granted to programs in colleges, how was the United States going to advance and make progress technologically in the world? In other words, Dean Adamson highlighted the necessity of universities to obtain federal funding to budget research, teaching, and federal aid for students.

The Daily Utah Chronicle reported in January 1962 that Dean Adamson, emphasized the importance of having “a balance between science and humanities and between teaching and research.” Through this lecture, Dean Adamson provided an understanding of the United States’ educational and technological developments, however this lecture presented the idea that the United States was becoming a less potential power in technology compared to the Soviet Union. As federal funding was not being focused towards technology and science in Universities. Students, then understood that federal funding was necessary to improve programs and allow other individuals to attend and enroll in university and pursue degrees in engineering, science, and technology.

sputnik

Article published in an October 1957 issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle.

The conversation introduced the technological development of the Soviet Union, the Sputnik Satellite from 1957. This topic was mentioned all over the United States, as it was one of the examples and advancements that presented the concerns and lack of budget to education. Alvin Powell published an article in the Harvard Gazette, on October 11, 2007 regarding the Sputnik Satellite and its importance to the educational path of the United States. “The United States may be overdue for a science education overhaul,” wrote Alvin. (p. 1) The Sputnik satellite was a technological advancement that demonstrated the development and importance the Soviet Union had towards technology in comparison with the United States in 1957. In this case, it was then given that the United States had to enact and work on a type of reform to fund educational research regarding science and engineering if it wanted to continue as a world potential power. And in response to the problematic educational crisis, the United States enacted the National Defense Education Act in 1958, which according to Powell, “increased funding for education at all levels, including low-interest student loans to college students, with the focus on scientific and technical education.” (p. 1)

As the conversation towards education increased with the controversy of the Soviet Union being the superior power in technological advancements, it was then noted that the funding for educational research and tuition was lacking. The University of Utah, during the Greek Lyceum lecture of Dean Adamson, presented findings according to the budget in 1962. Charlotte Garff, editor of the Daily Utah Chronicle in 1962 from Adamson’s lecture, wrote that “79 percent of the total U.S. budget is allotted for defense.” in an article published in February 1962. This amount and data presented in the lecture introduced the real budgeting the United States had towards other federal government programs comparing to education. Garff also presented how Dean Adamson emphasized that if the United States wanted to survive as the best potential power through the war crisis, it required the best programs and research or “the group with the best trained intelligence will win the cold war.”

Although education has been considered important to achieve success, it became a highly important factor for the United States to work on developing a technological era back in 1957. This movement, aside of budgeting programs focused on science, technology and engineering, opened new doors to other degrees as it introduced the federal funding programs towards education. The Soviet Union challenged the moral values and resources the United States had focused on research, and it created a breakthrough for future research, universities and education as a whole. The United States acquired the initiative and funded more educational programs over the nation. Discussions such as Dean Adamson’s lecture at the University of Utah, advocated and informed students and colleges on how valuable it was to have federal aid towards programs and student tuition. Federal funding has been providing a path to education for students for all majors and interests. Which creates opportunities for students to enroll and attend school and invest their educational careers in developing the technological future of the nation.

Michelle Saucedo is a senior at The University of Utah. She is majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism and minoring in Spanish.

Primary Sources

Bob Grondel, “Sputnik Spins on Through Space,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 10, 1957, 1.

Adamson To Initiate Greek Lyceum Fare,” Daily Utah Chronicle, January 31, 1962, 1.  

Charlotte Garff, “Aid Here to Stay, Dean Claims,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 2, 1962, 1.

Ernest Ford, “Adamson Urges Program To Better Use Students,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 16, 1962, 1.

Lecture Series Begins Tuesday,Daily Utah Chronicle, June 27, 1963, 1.

Secondary Source

Powell, Alvin. “How Sputnik Changed U.S. Education.” The Harvard Gazette, October 11, 2007.

Debate Continues Over the Use of Ute Mascot

By Jacob Rueda

The term “Ute” has become synonymous with the University of Utah. Names such as “Utes,” “redskins,” and “redskin braves” have been associated with the university sports teams in some manner or another. Most of those names have been dropped except for “Ute,” a name that is almost always associated with football.

In reality, the actual Utes are barely recognized by students and fans of the university’s sports teams alike. The tribe itself struggles to find acknowledgement in a world that cares more about use than consequence.

The University of Utah was established in 1850. It started using the Ute identity beginning in the 1920s, according to Utes Nickname Project website. The school received permission to use the “Ute” identity from one of the three recognized Ute Tribes, the Northern Ute Nation.

The other two nations, the Southern Ute and the Ute Mountain Tribes, did not grant permission to the school to use their name.

The Ute tribe has inhabited the area for over ten thousand years. The university has made efforts throughout its history to bridge relations with the Ute Tribe, albeit somewhat clumsily at times.

The Daily Utah Chronicle reported in October 1951 that the U.S. Supreme Court awarded $17,000,000 (equal to $167,880,884.62 in 2019 money) in an effort to appease the Uintah-Ouray reservation and for “furthering educational standards of the people.” Eleven young people between the ages of 17 and 19 were selected and interviewed for acceptance into the university.

Utonian 1-1

“Hoyo” first appeared as the University of Utah mascot in 1947. Used with permission from Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

At the time the university used a mascot called Hoyo, a cartoonish Native American child. The Chronicle absent-mindedly reported in that issue that the acceptance of native peoples at the university meant Hoyo “will at last have some country cousins on campus to urge him on to greater activity.”

Letters to the Editor in an April 1970 issue of the Chronicle acknowledged the “Ute” identity as a sign of strength, vitality, and “a source of pride.” While other students found the university’s mascots racist, others believed those who found them offensive were reading too much into things.

In April 1972, the issue was addressed again in the Chronicle. The concern over the use of native people’s image in college sports was growing nationwide. According to the article, tribes were suing universities for appropriating names and images alike.

There was some reconciliation later on, at least from the Chronicle itself. In 1987, the paper decided to distinguish when it referred to the Ute Tribe and when it referred to the school by using quotations marks when referencing the school. That practice has since been abandoned.

April 2014 saw the University of Utah signing a Memorandum of Understanding with the Ute Tribe. The memorandum is a five-year agreement where the university is allowed to use the name of the tribe on a conditional basis.

Utonian 2-1

The image of “Hoyo” was ubiquitous, especially in school announcements and calendars. Used with permission from Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Among the conditions, the university is to include in its campus programs a member of the tribe who was not a student. The purpose of that is to “enhance Native American perspectives,” writes author Larry Gerlach in the summer 2017 issue of the Utah Historical Quarterly.

Other conditions to use the name include a tribe-approved Native American advisor, a special advisor to Native American affairs, a full-time advisor on the reservation for high school students to attend college, and financial aid and scholarships for Native American students.

The debate over the name came up once more in the Chronicle on August 2016. This time, it was about doing away with the “Ute” nickname altogether. The article deemed the nickname “culturally insensitive” when referring to the school. Two sides, one for and one against, argued their points much like Letters to the Editor did 46 years earlier.

The Chronicle reported in September 2019 efforts by the Housing and Residential Office and Social Justice Advocates to educate dorm residents and advisors on moving away from using familiar symbols and replacing them. They also suggested using the phrase “Go Utah” instead of “Go Utes.” To date, none of these transitions have been implemented.

According to Gerlach in his article for the Quarterly, the National Collegiate Athletic Association declared that starting February 1, 2006, “institutions with hostile or abusive racial/ethnic/national origin mascots, nicknames or imagery” were prohibited from hosting championship games or displaying their mascots in jerseys and uniforms during championship tournaments.

Despite these regulations, the University of Utah was permitted to keep the classic drum and feather logo. Students at the school continue to debate its use.

Controversy surrounding the use of Native American symbols and names has plagued professional, high school and college teams alike. For example, the Washington Redskins continue to stir up controversy with their name and logo.

The situation with the Redskins is similar to that of the University of Utah with the drum and feather logo and the name “Utes.” Most fans support the team name and logo while others support changing the name and image of the teams altogether.

The situation got more complicated in Cedar High School in Cedar City, a small town in the southwestern corner of Utah. The mascot “Redman” had started to raise the ire of some members of the Paiute community.

In a Salt Lake Tribune article from January 2019, various members of the Paiute community expressed personal conflict when it came to supporting the mascot for Cedar High School. Opinions were split; some supported it while others didn’t. The support came at a price for some and questioned whether such support was warranted in the face of communal backlash.

Since that time, the school opted to change the mascot. Google docs published in the school’s website say a committee of “students, faculty, staff, and alumni” moved forward with changing the identity and mascot of the school. They are now known as “Reds” and the mascot is a wolf.

Unlike Cedar High School, the University of Utah does not have even a sizeable population of Native peoples. Therefore, it cannot and likely will not form any sort of committee with the kind of influence that impacted Cedar High School to evolve away from its former mascot.

Also, changing mascots for the university will not have the same significance as it did for Cedar High School. A school with a high non-native population that moves from using a Native American symbol cannot appreciate the significance of that like a school with a high Native American population.

Regardless, there is still a strong sense of pride for fans who identify as “Utes.” It has not waned in the slightest despite objections from individuals who feel the identity of “Utes” should not be commercialized or casually used.

Despite the clamor to respect Native Americans and protect the image of the Ute Tribe, statistics from the Office of Budget and Institutional Analysis at the university say Native Americans accounted for 0% of first time freshmen, undergraduate or graduate students in 2018.

To date, there has been no inquiry on the tribe’s views of the name or how their image is appropriated and used by the University of Utah today.

Since the Memorandum of Understanding between the school and the Ute Mountain Tribe in 2014, there have been no formal documented objections from either side over the agreement.

How the Utes intend to proceed with their relationship with the university after all that has transpired remains to be seen.

Jacob Rueda is a junior majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism at the University of Utah.

Primary Sources

Connor Richards, “Debate: Should Utah Ditch The ‘Ute’ Nickname?” The Daily Utah Chronicle, August 29, 2016.

Indian Youths Enter U on Tribal Grant,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 9, 1951, 1.

Craig Glover, “Letters to the Editor: Seriously?,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, April 24, 1970, 1.

Indians See Red, Hide Skins to Ute,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, April 19, 1972, 2.

Memorandum of Understanding between the Ute Indian Tribe and the University of Utah,” April 2014.

Martin Raybould, “Letters: Bring ‘Ute’ Back into Football,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 13, 1984.

Natalie Colby, “Appropriation or Appreciation? Social Justice Advocates Host ‘Utah Fan Am I,’” The Daily Utah Chronicle, September 26, 2019.

New Policy Distinguishes ‘Utes,’” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 1, 1987.

Erin Alberty, “Is a ‘Redmen’ mascot racist or does it honor Native Americans? The debate is dividing a southern Utah town,” The Salt Lake Tribune, January 13, 2019.

The Utes Nickname Project, Communication Institute, The University of Utah.

Secondary Source

Gerlach, Larry R. “Appropriation and Accommodation: The University of Utah and the Utes.” Utah Historical Quarterly 85, no.3 (Summer 2017): 204-223.

Neal A. Maxwell, Hays Gorey, and William B. Smart on Freedom of the Press in 1962

By Ann Reich

Freedom of the press has been under fire since it was included in the First Amendment. Even today, ethical questions arise around the country concerning the right to release information. In critical moments news organizations have to weigh the consequences before publishing sensitive material.

Neal A. Maxwell

Neal A. Maxwell, as pictured in The Daily Utah Chronicle on January 17, 1962.

The early 1960s were a time of tumult for the United States. The country was in the midst of an indefinite cold war and problems with Cuba were heating up. In April of 1961 the Bay of Pigs invasion during President Kennedy’s term was a failure, and the press released information about the defeat. (history.com) On January 17, 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle in the article, “Press Freedom’s Future,” said, “Presently the threat by the communist nations to the United States has again caused people to challenge freedom of the press.” It was a crucial time in history for the press, and freedom of the press was a significant topic in the journalism community.

On January 17, 1962, The University of Utah held a Great Issues Forum. At this event Neal A. Maxwell, the assistant to President A. Ray Olpin, discussed an essay he wrote titled, “Is Freedom of the Press Compatible with National Security?” After Maxwell, Hays Gorey, Salt Lake Tribune editor, and William B. Smart, head of the Deseret News editorial page, spoke on the same topic. (The Daily Utah Chronicle, p. 1)

In his essay, Maxwell analyzed the government’s relationship with the press, and his thoughts on a free press. Many times throughout history, the U.S. government has made a pact with the press to suspend fighting until a war or dangerous time is over. Maxwell argued that the Cold War was different and this suspension agreement could not be made. There was no end in sight during the Cold War, and the people needed information. (Maxwell, p. 46)

Maxwell argued that national security, especially with the military, was better with a free press. If the people know about the strengths, weaknesses, and plans in the military, then the executive branch would be presented with more choices regarding taking action. (Maxwell, p. 50)

Hays Gorey

Hays Gorey, a University of Utah alumnus, was pictured in The Daily Utah Chronicle on January 17, 1962.

Hays Gorey responded to Maxwell’s article. Gorey’s view agreed with Maxwell’s and he said that if the U.S. had no free press then it “would not be America at all.” (Gorey, p. 54) However, the press could cause some short-term harm to national security, but it is never lasting. While reporting on the mistakes of the U.S. could make the country weak in the moment, it would strengthen the country in the long run. The government would learn from their mistakes and would be less likely to repeat history if it was all documented by the press. Gorey was overall concerned with the government lasting. Free press might hurt the current government, but it has a more positive long-term outcome.

William B. Smart also wrote a response. Much of what he said aligned with Maxwell and Gorey: the free press had done well to protect national security. At the time of this speech, the country was in the midst of fighting communism. Smart mentioned President Kennedy’s fear of becoming like the enemy the country was fighting. The free press keeps the U.S. a democracy and stays away from too many governmental censorship.

William B. Smart

William B. Smart, pictured in The Daily Utah Chronicle on January 17, 1962, was head of the Deseret News editorial page.

Another important topic discussed was the fear caused by the press. Gorey claimed that it is better to know all of the horrifying events happening, then to be left afraid in the unknown. Maxwell brought up fear as a reason the government may push against the free press. However, Smart disagreed. In his comments he mentioned that the American citizens were “far more tough-minded” than what Maxwell implied. (Smart, p. 58)

Even though many events in the 1960s were mentioned by these speakers, their comments have been relevant throughout history. The Washington Post stated, “governments around the world are becoming more sophisticated in their efforts to censor expression.” (Rezaian) An increase in press censorship is largely due to the internet’s role in spreading information. Although the government will always attempt censorship in the interest of national security, freedom of the press will always be necessary.

Ann Reich is a senior at the University of Utah. Her major is communication with an emphasis in journalism.

Primary Sources

Neal A. Maxwell, “Is Freedom of the Press Compatible With National Security?” in Great Issues Concerning Freedom, ed. Waldemer P. Read (Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1962), 41-54.

Hays Gorey, “Comments” in Great Issues Concerning Freedom, ed. Waldemer P. Read (Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1962), 54-57.

William B. Smart, “Comments” in Great Issues Concerning Freedom, ed. Waldemer P. Read (Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1962), 57-60.

“Press Security To Theme Great Issues,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 16, 1962, 1.

Jackie Back, “Maxwell, Newsmen Set Examination Of Press,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 17, 1962, 1.

“Press Freedom’s Future,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 17, 1962, 2.

“Great Issues Airs Free Press In U.S.,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 18, 1962, 1.

“Vice President of U. Links Press Freedom, Security,” The Salt Lake Tribune, January 18, 1962, 24.

Secondary Sources

Editors, “Cuban Missile Crisis,” History.com.

Rezaian, Jason. “Dictators and the Internet: A Love Story,” The Washington Post, September 10, 2019.

 

United Nations Week — Utah, 1961

By Rachel T. Maughan

United Nations Week was celebrated in a variety of ways in the Salt Lake Valley during October 1961. In January 1961, the United Nations, under President John F. Kennedy, decided that the decade of the 1960s would be the Decade of Development. “Although it has experienced delays and disappointments the U.N. still embodies man’s best hopes this seems as surly as the world prepares to celebrate U.N. Day Tuesday.” (Provo Daily Herald, 10) The U.N. World Organization has relieved suffering and has preserved a measure of peace. Utah celebrated the 16th birthday of the United Nations by having multiple events across the state.

“Now therefore I, John F. Kennedy, President of the United States of America, do hereby urge the citizens of this nation to observe Tuesday, October 24 as United Nations Day.” (“United Nations Day: Faith Demonstration”) The General Assembly of the United Nations were on board with celebrating on October 24, which is the anniversary of the coming into force of the United Nations Charter. (“United Nations Day”) On a more local level, in Utah, Governor George D. Clyde declared October 23 through 29 to be designated as United Nation Week. (“U.N. Week Set”)

In the city of Bountiful, Utah, Mayor Harold L. Pope also signed a proclamation designating United Nations Week in his community. (Davis County Clipper, 6)

In the city of Orem, they had a ceremony called ‘Trees for Peace’ which involved elementary school kids planted more maple trees in Orem City Park. (Orem-Geneva Times, 1)

Also, high schools throughout Utah were each assigned a different country, and participated in a two-day reenactment of U.N. sessions held at the University of Utah. (Provo Daily Herald, 10)

The University of Utah had two major events to celebrate U.N. that week. The first was a pre-symphony reception for foreign students from high schools in the state, held Saturday in the rotunda and Gold Room of the Utah State Capitol. The second event of the week was a discussion on foreign policy issues in relation to the current session of the U.N. in 1961, and was scheduled for Monday in the auditorium of the Prudential Building. (“U.N. Week Set”) “Saturday’s concert includes an overture to Oberon by Weber; Schubert’s ballet music from ‘Rosemuta’ ‘Don Juan’ by Richard Strauss; and Tchaikovsky‘s ‘Pathetique’ Symphony, as a tribute to United Nations Day.” (“Symphony Season Opens”)

Warren C. Hickins

Warren I. Cikins, a State Department official, gave a talk called, “U.S. Foreign Policy and the United Nations,” on October 27, 1961, at the University of Utah campus. The photo was published in that issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle.

“US Foreign Policy and the United Nations” will be the theme of a talk given by Warren I. Cikins.” (“State Department Official”) The State Department planned to celebrate the 16th anniversary of the United Nations with a speaking tour and Cikins gladly volunteered. He spent two weeks traveling through the western states to speak to different crowds of people. “At the time, U.S. participation in the United Nations was a controversial topic, and the State Department was loudly criticized for “losing” China to the Communists.” (Fitzpatrick) Because of the turmoil within the U.N. many people were interested and attended his lectures.

On the last day of U.N. Week, students at the University of Utah held a fundraiser for UNICEF. The United Nations Children’s Fund saves millions of young lives all over the world. A collection drive took place Halloween night at the dorms. All of the proceeds went to the United Nations Children’s Fund and were distributed between 50 countries where three quarters of the world’s children were sickly starving or being neglected. (“Carlson Hall Collects”)

The 16th birthday of the United Nations was a perfect time to celebrate its successes and have a day/week to better inform and educate the country on its efforts. “No man is an island entire of itself.” here lies the fundamental reason for the existence of the United Nations organization.” (Provo Daily Herald, 10) The United Nations Organization focused on peace and giving aid to foreign countries in need. Their popularity at the time, was due to the growing awareness and concern for those in less fortunate countries.

Rachel Maughan graduated in December 2019 with a Bachelor of Arts in Communication.

Primary Sources

U.N. Week Set by Governor George D. Clyde,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 21, 1960, 4.

Symphony Season Opens with UN Day Tribute,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 20, 1961, 1.

United Nations Day: Faith Demonstration,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 24, 1961, 2.

Foreign Policy Set as Theme for UN Talks,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 26, 1961, 1.

State Department Official to Speak on UN Topic,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 27, 1961, 1.

Carlson Hall Collects for UNICEF,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 30, 1961, 3.

Celebrate UN Week,” Davis County Clipper, October 20, 1961, 6.

United Nations 16th Birthday,” Provo Daily Herald, October 23, 1961, 10.

This is United Nations Week,” Millard County Chronicle, October 26, 1961, 4.

“‘Trees For Peace’ Ceremony Note U.N. Day,” Orem-Geneva Times, October 26, 1.

Secondary Sources

Fitzpatrick, Christina Lehman. “The Newly Opened Personal Papers of Warren I. Cikins.” John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, July 3, 2012.

Guide to the Warren I. Cikins Personal Papers (#350), John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.

 

 

A World With Walls: The Creation of the Berlin Wall

By Ivana Martinez

Barriers have existed for centuries either to protect or to keep people out. They have served as historical landmarks, such as the Great Wall of China, Belfast Peace Walls, or in this instance the Berlin Wall. The Berlin Wall was erected on August 13, 1961, as a result of conflicting ideologies between the East and West sides of Germany. (Fishman, p. 364) It later came to symbolize the Iron Curtain during the Cold War.

Berlin_Wall_Three Men

Three men stand on a post looking out at the Berlin Wall. Photograph by Henri Cartier-Bresson. Image is in the public domain.

In the aftermath of World War II two ideologies circulated Germany. Fishman wrote in History of Education Quarterly that the German Democratic Republic (GDR) was created in the Soviet Occupation Zone in October 1949. According to Fishman, the creation of the German Democratic Republic “was a response to the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany, i.e. West Germany, five months earlier.” (Fishman, p. 364) The escalating tensions between these two ideologies erupted in the creation of the Berlin Wall. Which was an attempt to halt immigration fleeing to the West on behalf of the German Democratic Republic. On August 27, 1961, the New York Times described the Wall from a helicopter view as “an unhealthy vein on a man’s arm.”

In the early stages of building the wall it was reported to be 25 miles long and strung with barbed wire. Once completed, according to Barksdale, the wall spread 96 miles long through the countryside and only 27 miles within Berlin. The New York Times reported on August 27, 1961, that the wall was mostly “dirty red-grey color with white splotches where Masons dropped mortar on the pavement.” The New York Times also observed that same day that “the Brandenburg Gate, once the chief crossing point between East and West, is deserted now behind its barbed wire fences.”

Closing of Border by Steffen Rehm

Closing of the border between the East and West sides of Berlin photographed at the Brandenburg Gate. The author of the photograph is Steffen Rehm. Image is in the public domain.

The impact of the wall was felt in all sections of life: work, relationships, and travel. The Berlin Wall separated families and halted almost all immediate immigration to the West. Violent confrontations between civilians and the police quickly gathered the attention of the world. The crisis in Berlin reached the crevices of local communities. The confrontations were featured in front pages articles in local newspapers in the Provo Daily Herald and the Daily Utah Chronicle.

Local coverage in Utah focus on the tensions between these two polarizing sides in Germany and the responses from prominent leaders. For example, the Provo Sunday Herald reported on October 1, 1961, that communist police had strung barbed wire around Stienstueeken an isolated village and that, “In Berlin, East German refugees yesterday sought liberty or death in a grim game of “hide-and-seek” with Communist border guards under orders to shoot to prevent them from escaping to the West.”

A few days later, the Provo Daily Herald reported on October 5, 1961, that there were two separate incidents that involved police gun fire at the border of the wall that same day. Fleming wrote about the first incident “Communist police first-fired [sic] four machine pistol shots today at a West Berlin electric worker laying a cable along the border when he wandered about the one yard into East Berlin.” The second incident involved an exchange of 40 shots. Fleming reported that occurred when, “Communist police began throwing rocks at a West Berlin police loudspeaker truck near the border area.”

Much of these violent exchanges prompted political leaders to speak out on these incidents. Mayor Willy Brandt of West Berlin had warned the Communist “to stop the shooting.”(Goldsmith) After a visit to the United States Brandt had a meeting with President John Kennedy via telephone. The Daily Utah Chronicle on October 10, 1961, reported on Brandt’s statement, “Rarely has the U.S. government committed itself so irrevocably than to the freedom of West Berlin.”

The Allies kept a close eye on Berlin watching these violent exchanges. The Provo Daily Herald observed on October 9, 1961, “There appeared to be differences among the Western powers as to the wisdom of continuing to probe for a soft spot in the Russian demands which call for abandonment of the Allied position in Berlin.”

The Berlin Wall illustrated an escalation of tension in a polarizing time in history. The wall obstructed the free flow of immigration and caused many East Germans to “plot their escapes and occasionally die in the trying.” (Newsom) These tensions are still seen today. The barriers still exist, except it’s no longer in a foreign land. The United States border has caused a similar polarizing tension between nations and citizens. Many immigrants have died in the Rio Grande attempting to flee to the United States or died of dehydration in the desert. Although the Berlin Wall has since been torn down, we still live in a divided world filled with walls.

Ivana Martinez is a junior at The University of Utah. She is majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism.

Primary Sources

Joseph E. Fleming, “Reds String Barbed Wire Around Isolated Village,” Provo Sunday Herald, October 1, 1961, 1.

Joseph E. Fleming, “Gunfire on Border Stirs Crisis in Berlin; Mayor Brandt Heads for U.S.,” Provo Daily Herald, October 5, 1961, 1.

Phil Newsom,“Story of Human Tragedy Seen in Berlin,” Provo Daily Herald, October 5, 1961, 12.

Steward Hensley, “U.S., Allies Study Move In Berlin,Provo Daily Herald, October 9, 1961, 1.

Joseph E. Fleming, “Brandt Warns Against Concessions; Mayor Says U.S. Firm on Berlin,” Provo Daily Herald, October 9, 1961, 1.

Michael Goldsmith, “W. Berlin Mayor Brandt Warns Soviets:‘Stop The Shooting,’” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 10, 1961, 1.

Joseph E. Fleming,“Allies Say Red Mobilization In East Germany Grave Threat,Provo Daily Herald, October 10, 1961, 1.

Secondary Sources

Barksdale, Nate. “How long was the Berlin Wall?” History.com, September 1, 2018.

“Berlin Wall Built,” History.com, August 13, 2019.

Fishman, Sterling. “The Berlin Wall,” History of Education Quarterly 22, no. 3 (1982): 363-70.

Berlin Wall,” Encyclopædia Britannica, November 29, 2019.

“The Wall Marks Blotch in Berlin: Red’s 25-Mile Slash Across City Viewed From the Air,” The New York Times, August 27, 1961, 8.

 

The Legacy of Dr. Khosrow Mostofi: An Uphill Battle in Establishing the University of Utah Middle East Center

By Christian Gomez

Violence and war have become a normal part of life in the Middle East. Typically portrayed in a negative light, the Middle East is often scrutinized by people throughout the world for its differences in religious and political views. This has contributed to a general lack of understanding of the cultures, practices, and languages that exist in the Middle East.

Mostofi_Photo_1_Final-1

The Daily Utah Chronicle focuses on the accomplishments and retirement of former director and founder of the Middle East Center, Dr. Aziz S. Atiya. It also introduces Dr. Khosrow Mostofi as the new director. Photo from the July 1967 issue. Used by permission, The Daily Utah Chronicle.

The University of Utah has championed Middle Eastern studies for many years in hopes of providing opportunities to better understand the Middle East. From learning new languages to gaining an appreciation for other cultures, Middle Eastern studies at the University of Utah have provided opportunities for new perspectives and a deeper understanding of the Middle East. But, it wasn’t always this way. It took the efforts of prominent figures to establish this curriculum—people like Dr. Khosrow Mostofi.

Mostofi’s unique story began 7,000 miles away in Tehran, Iran, where he was born in 1921. He attended the University of Tehran, where he received his B.A. in English literature. His language skills were in high demand, and he taught English for the Ministry of Education at several institutions in Iran. (Bean, p. 306; Mostofi interview, p. 3)

In 1949, Mostofi immigrated to the United States. By this time, World War II had ended. But prior to leaving Tehran, he had met a U.S. officer from the Persian Gulf command. Mostofi and the officer stayed in touch after the war, and he told the officer of his plans to attend Columbia University. The officer informed him of the “cultural shock” that he would experience in New York City. Having been a student at the University of Utah, the officer suggested that Mostofi attend school in Salt Lake City—a place he had never even heard of. (Mostofi interview, pp. 3-4)

Mostofi quickly immersed himself into his graduate studies. He received a Ph.D. in Political Science four years later. Bothered by the lack of diversity in the curriculum, Mostofi proposed that three courses on the Middle East be implemented—an idea originally met with skepticism by administrators. Eventually, courses were added, and the University of Utah qualified for its first grant for the Middle East Center. (Mostofi interview, pp. 4-5)

After a two-year teaching stint at Portland State College, Mostofi returned to the University of Utah in 1960 when he was named the assistant director of the center—working alongside then-director and founder of the Middle East Center, Aziz Atiya. There were no formal degree programs and the only staff was Mostofi, Atiya, and one secretary. (Mostofi interview, pp. 6, 19)

Mostofi_Photo_2 Final-2

Dr. Sami A. Hanna, left, associate professor of languages, and Dr. Khosrow Mostofi, director of the Middle East Center, discuss their plans for the new cultural exchange program in Tunis, Tunisia. Photo from a February 1971 issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle. Used by permission.

While the addition of the Middle East Center was a step in the right direction, it wasn’t embraced by everyone. In an interview with Everett L. Cooley, Mostofi spoke about the “outright hostility in some circles” that the program was met with on campus. Some faculty felt that funding should be spent elsewhere, and not on a new, unproven program.

In 1966, Mostofi resigned his position to pursue full time teaching and research. His resignation was brief, as Atiya fell ill, and Mostofi took over. The Daily Utah Chronicle highlighted this change in its July 1967 issue, which commemorated Atiya and introduced Mostofi as the new director. (Mostofi interview, p. 18)

Mostofi introduced reforms for the center, citing a lack of performance. He reached an agreement with the U.S. Office of Education that allowed the center to host professors from Turkey, Iran, Lebanon, Egypt, Iraq, and Israel for three-month intervals. Mostofi improved curriculum by forming strong relations with Iran—as evidenced in the August 1966 issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle. The center’s funding increased, and graduate and undergraduate programs were approved. Seven graduate degree programs emerged for Middle East Studies: Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, Turkish, Anthropology, History and Political Science. (Mostofi interview, pp. 18-20)

After receiving little support from the federal government, Mostofi secured grants from major organizations—changing the entire outlook on the Middle East Center. He also formed relationships with the public-school system, as well as the local community, beginning a “grass roots support” for the center. This was illustrated in the February 1971 issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle, when Mostofi organized a cultural exchange program for U.S. students in Tunisia. (Mostofi interview, pp. 24, 27)

In his interview with Everett L. Cooley, Mostofi made it clear what his mission had been throughout this entire process: “Changing attitudes and outlooks.” Mostofi did this by instilling the Middle East’s proud and expansive history in higher education’s curriculum. It was about shifting the misperceptions associated with the Middle East, and bringing to awareness the richness of its culture.

Mostofi etched his mark on students at the University of Utah. The April 1964 issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle drew attention to Mostofi’s efforts in bringing thousands of Persian books to the library. His prominent role in the development of the Middle East Center left a lasting impact, and it most likely wouldn’t exist today if it wasn’t for his contributions.

Mostofi_Photo_3_Final-1

The Daily Utah Chronicle highlights Dr. Khosrow Mostofi’s efforts in bringing in over 3,000 volumes of Persian books for the Intercultural Library. Photo from the August 1966 issue. Used by permission, The Daily Utah Chronicle.

Mostofi retired from the Department of Political Science in 1987, but remained a Middle East Center consultant until 1991. He was honored with the Distinguished Service Award and acknowledged as “an internationally recognized scholar of Iranian culture, history, and politics,” according to the August 1992 issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle.

Today, the Middle East Center stands strong—empowering students to enact change and become global citizens. It offers graduate and undergraduate programs that provide students with dynamic skills in language and cultural comprehension in the Middle East. For students today, the center serves as a stepping stone for potential careers in public affairs, public service, business, and several other fields. Opportunities now exist for students to participate in conferences, workshops, and outreach activities to further their understanding of the Middle East, and shed the stereotypes that are still prevalent in today’s society.

Christian Gomez is a junior at the University of Utah. He is studying strategic communication with a minor in writing in rhetoric.

Primary Sources

Former Middle East Center director dies,” Daily Utah Chronicle, August 12, 1992, 3.

Intercultural Center Gains 3,000 Volumes,” Daily Utah Chronicle, August 16, 1966, 3.

Iran Embassy Honors Prof For Writings,” Daily Utah Chronicle, April 10, 1964, 4.

Mid East program okayed,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 25, 1971, 5.

Profs Gain Posts,” Daily Utah Chronicle, July 14, 1967, 1.

Transcript, interview with Khosrow Mostofi, conducted September 17, 1985, by Everett L. Cooley, Everett L. Colley Oral History Collection, J Willard Marriott Library Special Collections, The University of Utah.

Secondary Source

Bean, Lee L. “Khosrow Mostofi.” Middle East Studies Association Bulletin 26, no. 2 (1992): 306-07.

 

 

 

Drew Pearson’s Journalistic Legacy

By Oakley Burt

Drew Pearson (1897-1969) was an American journalist from Evanston, Illinois. He is regarded as one of the most influential, but controversial news and radio journalists of his time with a career spanning close to fifty years.

Pearson’s career in journalism began while he attended Swarthmore College (1915-1919) and worked as an editor for the school newspaper, The Phoenix. After graduating from Swarthmore, Pearson took on new opportunities and ventured into the world. From 1919-1921 he served with the American Friends Service Committee directing post-war efforts in Kosovo. He returned to the US and taught geography at the University of Pennsylvania until 1922.

Pearson1

Journalist Drew Pearson taking a reading break to answer his phone. Shot by staff photographers at the Salt Lake Tribune in 1952. Used by permission, Utah State History.

Pearson traveled abroad again in 1923, to Eastern Europe, Asia, and Australia. According to one source, he wrote about his travels as a freelance journalist and secured a six-month lecture tour in Australia. As Pearson was traveling through the Mediterranean he was also commissioned for America’s “Around the World Syndicate” for a series of interviews titled, “Europe’s Twelve Greatest Men.” (Nimmo and Newsome, p. 267)

Upon returning to the United States he transitioned into a full-time career as a journalist. Pearson went on to work at the United States Daily from 1926-1933, and the Baltimore Sun from 1929-1932. While working at the Baltimore Sun in 1930, Pearson was sent to Cuba to cover the Cuban Revolution. According to Heintze, his reporting earned him an honorable mention for the Pugsley Award for the best journalistic reporting of 1930.

Pearson’s most notable and famed contribution to journalism was a book he co-authored titled, Washington Merry-Go-Round, and the daily column that followed. In 1931, he and Robert S. Allen anonymously published the book described as “a collection of gossip-ridden news items concerning key figures in public service.” (Heintze) The pair released another book the following year titled, More Merry-Go-Round, but were found to be the authors and were fired from their jobs. Pearson was subsequently hired as the head of the Baltimore Sun’s Washington division. From there he and Allen began the infamous “Washington Merry-Go-Round” daily column. Like the book, the column was dedicated to honest reporting, uncovering corruption, lies, affairs, etc. “From the thirties through the sixties, no one crossed the journo-politico line in search of real policy impact with greater fervor than Drew Pearson,” reported the New Yorker on September 28, 2015.

Pearson2

Drew Pearson holding his newspaper. Shot by staff photographers at the Salt Lake Tribune in 1952. Used by permission, Utah State History.

Pearson rarely shied away from reporting on controversial topics throughout his career. He reported on bribes taken by New Jersey Congressman, J. Parnell Thomas from the White House, and that Senator Robert F. Kennedy had authorized electronic surveillance of Martin Luther King Jr. (Hopkins, p. 552) Pearson often reported on the Kennedy family, President John F. Kennedy in particular. He aired his concerns with the Kennedy Administration and was one of the journalists reporting on President Kennedy’s alleged affairs. Pearson also reported on the Watergate scandal in 1972. Pearson’s beliefs and stances on issues were made well known in his reporting, he remained candid and controversial in his work.

Toward the end of his career, his status landed him numerous speaking engagements, including a guest speaking appearance at the University of Utah. On November 7, 1970, the Daily Utah Chronicle reported that Pearson would be a guest speaker in Kingsbury Hall at the University of Utah. Roger Traynor and Jan Preece were also selected as guests to highlight activities during that week. Traynor spoke on appellate judges while Preece, a famed metropolitan opera singer, would be performing works of Bach. The Daily Utah Chronicle reported on November 9, 1970, that Pearson’s lecture topic would be his famous syndicated column, “Washington Merry-Go-Round.” On November 14, after his lecture, the Chronicle reported that Pearson mainly spoke on the new Kennedy Administration — voicing his concerns surrounding the election and speculating that Nixon would run for president again.

For the remainder of his life and career, Pearson continued to publish the “Washington Merry-Go-Round” column and air his radio show of the same name. Upon his death, his longtime aide, the investigative journalist Jack Anderson, inherited the column. (Heintze)

Drew Pearson died on September 1, 1969. On September 2, the Washington Post reported on Pearson’s death, saying, “He was a crusader. He passionately believed that public office was a public trust, and with his brand of journalism, he went after the corrupt, incompetent and pompous.” The Washington Post reported on Pearson again on September 3, saying, “He was a moralist who was proud to be a muckraker in the strict dictionary sense — one who searches out and exposes publicly real or apparent misconduct of prominent individuals.” The Post continued, “Somewhere in these unlikely combinations lies the key to his extraordinary career as the most successful, in many ways the most effective, and certainly the most controversial journalist of his time.” The Washington Post accurately described Pearson’s impact on journalism.

Drew Pearson’s contributions to the journalism profession cannot be ignored or forgotten. He was an influential, controversial and important figure in American journalism. In more ways than one Pearson laid the foundation for current journalists to follow in his footsteps and conduct in-depth reporting. Especially in today’s political climate, it is crucial that American journalists never shy away from reporting on controversial topics and news as Pearson did not. Journalism is a profession that aims to keep the government and its public figures in check, a statement that was upheld by Pearson and should be regarded by modern-day journalists as well.

Oakley Burt is a junior at the University of Utah. She is a communication major with an emphasis in journalism and a minor in political science.

Primary Sources

Drew Pearson Speaks Friday in Kingsbury,Daily Utah Chronicle, November 7, 1960, 1.

Drew Pearson, Columnist, to Address Students,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 9, 1960, 1.

Drew Pearson to Speak in Kingsbury,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 10, 1960, 1.

Pearson Talks on Coming Kennedy Administration,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 14, 1960, 2.

Jack Anderson, “Drew Pearson: A Great Reporter Dies: The Washington Merry-Go-Round,” Washington Post, September 2, 1969, 13.

“Drew Pearson,” Washington Post, September 3, 1969, 22.

Secondary Sources

Hopkins, W. Wat. “Pearson.” In Biographical Dictionary of American Journalism, edited by Joseph P. McKerns. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Heintze, Jim. “Drew Pearson Biography.” University Library, American University, February 9, 2006.

Mallon, Thomas. “The Journalist Who Was His Own Inside Source,The New Yorker, September 21, 2015

Nimmo, Dan D. and Chevelle Newsome. Political Commentators in the United States in the 20th Century: A Bio-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997.

Drew Pearson,” Encyclopedia Britannica, December 9, 2019.