Dr. Arthur Larson speaks to the University of Utah in 1960

By Briella Brice


Portrait of Dr. Arthur Larson that was published in The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 26, 1960.

Dr. Arthur Larson was the director of the World Rule of Law at Duke University and special event coordinator for President Dwight Eisenhower. Larson was an assistant to the Eisenhower Administration starting in 1954 and shared a close relationship with the president. After attending the Pittsburgh Law School for only nine months, Larson played a substantial role in the way the Eisenhower Administration was perceived by citizens at the time. Larson provided support in areas where Eisenhower lacked communication skills and helped convey what the Republican party stood for at the time. David L. Stebenne stated in his book, The Modern Republican, that Larson served as the secretary of labor, director of the United States Information Agency, and chief presidential speechwriter between 1954 and 1958. (p. x) Many thought of Larson as a political celebrity, before his name was forgotten and much of this period of Republican fame was erased from America’s political history. (Stebenne, p. x)

After the release of Larson’s most popular book, A Republican Looks at his Party, he was labeled by the New York Times as “chief theoretician” of the Eisenhower-era Republicanism. (Stebenne, p. x) His book was published at a time when Republicanism in America was transitioning to a newer version that did not fit into the characteristics of existing political parties, specifically “Old Republicanism.” The goal of Larson’s writing was to show the connection between the Eisenhower Administration’s views and how they compared to 1950s America, a time of strong agreement throughout the country. (Stebenne, p. 157) Eisenhower stated that Larson captured all of his philosophical ideas the best he had seen for a book the size of A Republican Looks at his Party.

This was an important topic at the time because of substantial changes, confusion within our own country and others around the world, and lack of political knowledge. Businesses were becoming more aware of the positive aspects of government intervention and the government was experiencing extreme growth and change in regard to the economy. America had changed from a place of agriculture to industry, leading to more international responsibilities, and revising of policies put into place at a simpler time. (Stebenne, p. 159)

While serving under the Eisenhower Administration, Larson was heavily involved with social insurance policies and workers compensation. Inspired by British policy, he used a comparative approach to research the topic, examining contrasts and potential problems in America. Larson saw a relationship between good health and economic security and recognized that the current policy needed reevaluating.

“The best way to minimize the likelihood of such expenses, Larson suggested, was good preventive medicine.” (Stebenne, p. 104) This quote expresses Larson’s cautious and heedful personality that brought success into many aspects of his life. His research on this topic shows American pride that had been stirring throughout the country for the past twenty years, and the optimism Larson expressed toward America led him to further accomplishments.

Larson’s vigilant behavior toward economic security reveals the reason behind his passion of spreading knowledge about the positive aspects of America. Larson delivered a speech to the University of Utah in the Union Ballroom on Thursday October 27, 1960. The topic of his talk was “What Are We For,” regarding American life at the time including our accomplishments, ideals, and aspirations. Larson was passionate about the aspects of American life and the importance of government.

It was stated in the Daily Utah Chronicle that the United States equalized private enterprise and government intervention and we were constantly trying to find a balance between private freedom and public interest. According to Larson, we had to understand ourselves and know what we stood for in order to accurately portray an image to the rest of the world. For this reason, Larson emphasized the importance of foreign students attending his speech at the University. The University of Utah Students from Abroad Committee sent invitations to each international student, in hopes their attendance would help fulfill Larson’s goal of more foreigners understanding the way America operated. People were confused about the Republican party at the time and Larson’s speeches were important in making their new objectives clear. The following quote was stated in Larson’s speech given at the University and reported in The Daily Utah Chronicle on October 28, 1960:

One of the most crucial tasks our country is faced with is to convey to people all over the world the idea of what we stand for. We know we are against communism; but if we do not have a clear idea of what we are for the people of the world will have no way of identifying themselves with us. This identification might be presented as our chief objective.

IMG_6018According to an article in the Chronicle titled “Petty Issues,” there was controversy regarding Larson’s visit to the University of Utah, as well as other prominent Americans. The year 1960 was an election year in the United States, which made some individuals suspicious about speakers brought in to speak to the University during this period. Larson was very well known for representing the Republican Party, and some saw this as a way to involve more students and faculty with that political group. The article published in the Chronicle suggested that the University limit the number of political speakers and reserve this spot for those who have never been affiliated with a political party.

Larson made his way back to Salt Lake City two years later to deliver a speech at Westminster College. According to an article published in The Salt Lake Times in 1962, the topic of his talk was “World Rule of Law,” a different theme from his speech delivered at the University of Utah. Among Larson’s many accomplishments, he taught at the Duke Law School for twenty-two years and made many contributions to the Duke Law Journal. Individuals from Duke who had the opportunity to work with Larson had strong positive opinions of him. As Norman Cousins stated in the Duke Law Journal, “It is impossible to pay too high a tribute to such a human being.” (p. 391)

Larson’s views regarding the World Rule of Law reflect his political views. Instead of trying to portray a positive image of America, his talk at Westminster was based on showing strong leadership in order to share a new approach to law and make it a reality across the globe. Both of Larson’s visits to Salt Lake City show his willingness to spread ideas and make his thoughts heard.

It is important to remember this time in history because of the position of the Republican Party at the time. Although there are gaps where crucial pieces of conservatism history could be missing, the information we have can assist individuals with similar goals. The controversy of why the university decided to host Arthur Larson is also important. While influencing listeners may not have been the overall goal, it opens our minds to the impact events have on the University of Utah community, even today.

Briella Brice is a junior at The University of Utah. She is majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism and minoring in parks, recreation, and tourism with an emphasis in sustainable tourism and hospitality.

Primary Sources

Ike Consultant, Dr. Larson Slates Speech,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 26, 1960, 1.

Larson Outlines Purpose, Defines Government Role,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 28, 1960, 1.

Dr. Arthur Larson Schedules Talk at Westminster College,” Salt Lake Times, April 20, 1962, 2.

Larson To Discuss U.S. Ideals, Prestige,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 27, 1960, 1.

Petty Issues,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 27, 1960, 2.

Larson, Arthur. A Republican Looks at His Party. New York: Harper, 1956.

Secondary Sources

Cousins, Norman, et al. “A Tribute To Arthur Larson,” Duke Law Journal 385 (1980): 387-415.

Stebenne, David L. Modern Republican: Arthur Larson and the Eisenhower Years. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.



Ted Kennedy Comes to the University of Utah

By Rachel L. Beus

There are very few people in the United States who are unfamiliar with the Kennedy surname. Ted Kennedy was a member of a family known to us as a family with insurmountable political power that has been ravaged by both personal tragedy and public scandal. Ted Kennedy was born the youngest son of Rose Fitzgerald and John P. Kennedy on February 22, 1932. During his brother’s campaign Ted Kennedy gave a speech at the University to promote his candidacy for president of the United States, but this was just the beginning of his long and distinguished career in politics.

Ted Kennedy is famously known as the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy and Senator Robert Kennedy, both of whom were assassinated at the height of their political careers. Ted Kennedy’s life was rattled with much personal tragedy for him and his family. “It may be appropriate for Ted Kennedy’s life to be treated with sympathy by biographers and historians in that he was the kid brother living under the shadow of Joe Sr.’s favorite three sons, and only came to prominence in his own family after one brother was killed in World War II and the other two by assassination.” (Popejoy)

The website Biography discusses Ted Kennedy’s political contributions by saying, “Ted Kennedy campaigned for his brother, John F. Kennedy, in the 1960 presidential race. In 1962, shortly after his brother’s victory, Ted was elected to John’s former U.S. Senate seat. At the age of 30, he became a representative for the state of Massachusetts.” Popejoy writes, “It may be appropriate for Ted Kennedy’s life to be treated with sympathy by biographers and historians in that he was the kid brother living under the shadow of Joe Sr.’s favorite three sons, and only came to prominence in his own family after one brother was killed in World War II and the other two by assassination.”

On October 21, 1960, the Daily Utah Chronicle announced that Ted Kennedy would be coming to the University of Utah at noon to speak to students on behalf of his brother John F. Kennedy, since he was the director of the Democratic presidential campaign. This was just one stop on his nine-day tour of western state universities and colleges. The Daily Utah Chronicle reported that the brother of the Democratic presidential candidate, Ted Kennedy, spoke of university students encouraging enthusiasm and interest regarding politics in his speech at Orson Spencer Hall earlier that week.

In the “Letters to the Editor” section, the Daily Utah Chronicle was criticized for not giving more attention to Governor Clyde’s visit to the University of Utah, especially when there was extensive coverage regarding Ted Kennedy’s visit and speech. The paper was also criticized for this being a recurring theme, citing the lack of coverage regarding Senator Bennett also coming to the campus. The letter also disregarded any further excuses or justifications over the lack of coverage of public figures, claiming they were unfounded.

The August 19, 1960, issue of the Salt Lake Times reported, “Gov. Grant Sawyer of Nevada and Ted Kennedy, brother of the Democratic candidate for president, will be major speakers at the huge FDR Day rally.” That article later went on to call Ted Kennedy the campaign manager for his brother in 13 western states.

Ted Kennedy had an influential and far reaching career as a politician that lasted almost 47 years. In the 1960s the University of Utah got a small glimpse of the political prowess that was to come from him in the future. Popejoy notes, “The American public and the world tend to associate the Kennedy name with wealth, power, bold liberal legislative leadership, and often, unfortunately, unbecoming of men of their stature. Kennedy men boldly embraced life with gusto if not thoughtful restraint.” Ted Kennedy left a lasting impression on this country both with is legislative policies and eventful personal life.

Rachel Beus graduated from the University of Utah in December 2019 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Communication and a minor in History. 

Primary Sources

Young Demos to Talk on Business,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 20, 1960.

Ted Kennedy to Speak Before Campus Today,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 21, 1960.

Ted Kennedy Lauds U Enthusiasm,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 24, 1960.

Senator Moss Says U.S. ‘Must Align Nation on Freedom Side,’” Salt Lake Times, December 30, 1960.

Letters to the Editor,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 31, 1960.

Kennedy, Sawyer to Speak at FDR Day Rally on Saturday,” Salt Lake Times, August 19, 1960.

Secondary Sources

Ted Kennedy, U.S. Senator 1932-2009.” Biography.com. July 23, 2019.

Popejoy, Michael. “Last Lion: The Rise and Fall of Ted Kennedy.” Public Integrity 12, no. 2 (Spring 2010): 188–90.



An Anthropological and Environmental Look at the Effects of the Glen Canyon Dam on the American Southwest

Aerial glen canyon

Negative of an aerial view of part of Glen Canyon in early days of Lake Powell. Possibly taken in November of 1964.
Used by permission, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

By Daniel Belding

The Glen Canyon region is one of the most popular destinations of the American Southwest. The area is perhaps most known for Lake Powell, yet many visitors do not know the story of how this site was formed. Lake Powell is a reservoir which was created when the backwater from the Glen Canyon Dam flooded Glen Canyon.

The United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) notes that upon Congress’ approval of the Colorado River Storage Project Act in early 1956, construction of the dam began and officially concluded in 1966. The Glen Canyon Dam is an engineering marvel that provides the states of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, Nevada, and California with a steady water supply. Aside from California, each of the aforementioned states also benefits from the dam’s hydroelectric power. In “Dam(n) How Times Have Changed…,” Peter Lavigne writes, “Dams have turned the arid deserts of the West into dazzling electrical cities, water-wanton agricultural plots, and high desert grazing ranges.” While the Glen Canyon Dam has turned a barren landscape into a livable region and provided clean energy the project faced scrutiny which has lasted to this day. Even the construction process itself proved to be tumultuous.

glen canyon construction

Photo shows construction work on the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Used by permission, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

One of the largest controversies surrounding Glen Canyon’s intentional flooding was the loss of archaeological sites within the canyon. However, the October 13, 1960, issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle highlights the efforts of anthropologist Dr. Jesse D. Jennings along with others to salvage and preserve these historic sites. Jennings also created a film that showcased the work required to complete the salvaging and discussed the necessity of the dam. The film was presented at the University of Utah to positive reviews. The Daily Utah Chronicle also reported in the February 23, 1960, issue that Glen Canyon was once home to over 300 Native American sites that dated back 800 years prior to the dam’s construction. Although some sites were lost, Jennings and his team of anthropologists were able to uncover numerous ancient records opening doors for further research on the tribes of the Southwest and why they vacated their former settlements.

While the work of Jennings and his colleagues was celebrated by many, it also highlights the frustrations of those who opposed the dam. The October 14, 1960, issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle explains that Jennings and his team were the first non-indigenous explorers of the majority of these sites. This was met with controversy as opposition of the dam saw this as an intrusion that was a direct effect of the region’s rapid development.

A quote from the article “Man’s Impact on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon” featured in the July-August 1974, issue of American Scientist further highlights the Glen Canyon Dam’s adverse effects. The article states that the once remote Southwest now houses “some of the most extensive and persistent scars of large scale environmental modification.” (Dolan, Robert, et al., p. 392) As roads and residential developments continued to appear in the region, Lake Powell was filled with sediment and eroded materials that are important to the Colorado River’s stability. However, the dam blocked these resources from entering the lower portions of the river, resulting in a change in the Colorado River’s shape, flow and flood patterns as soon as the 1970s.

glen canyon bridge

Photo showing Glen Canyon Bridge. Photo by Greg Dimmitt or David Thompson during a South Cottonwood Ward river trip on the Colorado River around 1960 or 1961. Used by permission, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

The Glen Canyon Dam project was met with considerable outside protests, yet there were many issues with internal affairs as well. The Times Independent reported in the April 20, 1961, issue that Utah was one of the last affiliated states to actively support the filling and creation of Lake Powell. Once Utah politicians agreed on the project more trouble arose. Early into the construction process workers went on strike after wages were cut. The March 11, 1960, issue of the Salt Lake Times covered the workers’ strike, which forced Utah Senator Frank Moss to introduce a bill to the Treasury hoping to erase interest the project had accumulated during the period when no progress was made on the dam. The strike went on to delay completion of the dam by six months.

Glen Canyon Dam is an often unrecognized project which has helped shape the Southwest. The dam has been met with both praise and opposition. Millions have visited and enjoyed the Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Powell, while other groups still actively call for the dam’s decommissioning. The Glen Canyon Dam’s commissioning was a major factor in the development of the Southwest but this has certainly come at a price.

Daniel Belding is a senior at the University of Utah. He is majoring in communication.

Primary Sources

“Publication Outlines Utah’s Anthropological Sleuthing,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 23, 1960, 3.

“Moss Asking Congress to Overlook Strike in Dam Interest Cost.” Salt Lake Times, March 11, 1960, 1.

“Glen Canyon To Be Topic For Lecture,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 13, 1960, 2.

Richard Rosenbaum, “Salvage Movie with Talks Sparks Interest,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 14, 1960, 2.

“Utah Backs Commission,” Times Independent, April 20, 1961, 2.

Secondary Sources

Dolan, Robert, et al. “Man’s Impact on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon,” American Scientist 62, no. 4 (July-August 1974): 392–401.

Glen Canyon Unit,” United States Bureau of Reclamation.

Lavigne, Peter M. “Dam(n) How Times Have Changed…,” William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review 29, no. 2 (2005): 450-480.





Guest Lecturers at the U: From Cartoonists to Civil Rights Leaders

By Rahul Barkley

The importance of racial diversity in higher education should not be understated. The lack of racial diversity on a college campus can lead to skewed prioritization and underrepresentation while an ethnically diverse campus that encourages cross-race socialization and frequent discussion of racial issues can result in self-confidence, positive interaction between students, and overall college satisfaction. (Gonzalez, 2012) With the topic of racial diversity, reflecting upon historical contexts can provide integral insight on issues of race within a collegiate setting.

In the Fall 1960 semester at the University of Utah, a lecture series sponsored by the ASUU Assemblies and Convocations committee and the Extension Division was entering its third season. The goal of this series was to give “students and faculty a chance to hear the views of some of the world’s great people on some timely and critical problems.” (1961 Utonian, p. 203) Several notable speakers were scheduled to speak throughout the 1960-61 school year. Looking back, it is notable to point out the various speakers that the University of Utah was able to get. From politicians to columnists to anthropologists, the student government undoubtedly succeeded in obtaining an eclectic roster of guest lecturers. What is more interesting, however, is how the University’s media covered the appearances of certain speakers. The University of Utah was a considerably less diverse institution in 1960 and with that, it is important to look at how the school’s media outlets might have prioritized certain speakers depending on their race.


Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. during his visit to Salt Lake City on January 31, 1960. Image courtesy of Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

The Daily Utah Chronicle first covered the lecture series on October 3, 1960, by primarily giving attention to the speaker who was going to start off the lecture series, Al Capp. The article gave background information on Capp’s world-renowned work as a cartoon artist. The article concluded by listing some of the other lecturers who would come to speak later that year. One of the speakers who was mentioned was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. The following day on October 4, 1960, The Chronicle followed up with a similarly structured article.

This is where the question of prioritization comes in. Is it right to rate the value of certain individuals’ contributions to society? From a 2019 lens, one would probably argue that King had a far greater and important impact on American culture than Al Capp did. Even for the time, King had already made some monumental strides in the Civil Rights Movement. Did America in 1960 not value the contributions of the civil-rights activist? The more likely answer is that the predominantly white University of Utah could not foresee how important King was as an individual.

Eventually, King was given his own article once it came close to the time of his appearance. The January 30, 1961, issue of The Chronicle described King with just reverence and respect when giving readers background information on the speaker who would soon visit their school. Another article was written in The Chronicle about King on the day of his lecture on January 31, 1961, this time offering specific details on what the topic of his lecture was going to be on. The article quoted the subject of his lecture as “The Future of Integration.” (Daily Utah Chronicle, 1961)

MLK and Williams

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. speaking with political science professor J. D. Williams during King’s visit to the University of Utah. Image found through the Deseret News archives.

Should there have been more attention given to the appearance of Martin Luther King Jr. in those initial Chronicle articles? Or was it sufficient to give him his exposure during the time of his lecture? Given the aforementioned goal of the lecture series, more coverage should have been given to King’s appearance considering that the Civil Rights Movement was a central part of arguably the most “critical problem” that America had been facing at the time. This problem is further highlighted in the fact that King’s arrival in Salt Lake City for the event was delayed an hour due to a bomb threat. (House, 2012) Surely none of the other guest lecturers faced a detriment like that. And surely The Chronicle could not have foreseen such a thing happening to King, but it should have made clear after the fact of who would have been the most important speaker of that lecture series.

Rahul Barkley is a fourth-year student at the University of Utah. He is a double major in strategic communication and film and media arts.

Primary Sources

“Dogpatch Ambassador to Speak,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 3, 1960, 1.

“Capp’s Lecture Kicks Off ’60 Guest Speaker Series,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 4, 1960, 1.

Elaine Krans, “Martin Luther King Sets Campus Speech,” Daily Utah Chronicle, January 30, 1961, 1.

“Southern Leader Speaks of Race Problem Tonight,” Daily Utah Chronicle, January 31, 1961, 1.

The University of Utah, Utonian (Salt Lake City, Utah: 1961), 203.

Joe Bauman, “King’s visits to Utah are chronicled,” Deseret News, January 19, 2009.

Secondary Sources

House, Dawn. “Civil rights speaker questions Utah’s History with Martin Luther King Jr. Day,” The Salt Lake Tribune, January 6, 2012.

Clarke, Chris Gonzalez. “Rethinking Research on the Impact of Racial Diversity in Higher Education,” Review of Higher Education 36, no. 1 (December 2012).







The Societal Differences Between the Male and Female Sex in the 1940s

By Brook Williams

The differences between the sexes in the 1940s is extremely prevalent when observing the media and literature around that time. While reading through The Utah Chronicle during the decade of the ’40s, it is evident throughout the ads and articles that women and men had distinct qualities that they were supposed to live up to in order to fit in with society. It was normal for ladies to be seen as objects that played very little roles in the development of the world. Typically, women held little control or power and were constantly being simplified to having no other purposes on this earth than being a beautiful caregiver to her husband and children.

Contrary, men were socially constructed to be a breadwinner, a worker, a gentleman, intelligent, and powerful. They were expected to provide for the women and family and uphold a high standard of manners. Both sexes came with the pressure to be a specific way. Rarely do you see any influence to be authentic to oneself in the 1940s. People had to fit the mold.


Here, we can see the way that women and men were discussed in the ’40s. This is a picture of the “Helpful Hints to College Men” column, published in the Utah Chronicle on November 28, 1940.

Many articles published during the ’40s display these ideas through the language and conversation. One article that especially points this out was in the November 28, 1940, issue of The Utah Chronicle. The “Helpful Hints to College Men” column reported an etiquette book that the Mortar Woman’s Honor Society created called As We Do It. “I know some of us [women] do let things drop on purpose, but even then, you should be gentleman enough to pick them up.” (“Helpful Hints”) As We Do It was published in 1940 by the University of Utah, courtesy of the Mortar Board, which is a select group of female honorary students. It was a guide to help college students with their etiquette, including, style, telephone etiquette and dating etiquette.

An excerpt from the book discusses how women should be a “good sport” on dates and try out activities like skiing, even if they don’t have the desire to. “After your escort has unwrapped you several times from around the pine tree, he’ll probably only be too happy to let you play in the snow. But rest assured he will admire you all the more for your stamina, and will ask you again if you have enough fun to show him you’re a jolly sort.” (As We Do It, p. 21) This excerpt displays the general idea of women pleasing men and the assumption that the woman would fail and be weak during the activity.


This is an image of the original AS WE DO IT booklet of etiquette, written and edited by Mortar Woman’s Honor Society. Photo by Brook Williams, communication student at The University of Utah.

A November 14, 1940, article in The Utah Chronicle includes several different examples of women being continuously referred to with an adjective describing their beauty. For example, “cute Beth,” “she said with a gleam in her lovely brown eyes,” “chimed in blonde Betty,” “petite Betty Lou,” or “attractive Nonie.” Words like dainty, fragile, tantalizing and petite are used to describe all women.

In one Utah Chronicle column called “Keep the Change,” men explained the nicknames they gave their girlfriends. A few of “the prize winners” were, “I call my girl Hinge, because she is something to a door,” “I call my girl Calibre because she is such a bore,” and, “I call my girl Hitler because she is sh-Nazi.” Men publicly spoke of their girlfriends in a condescending way, which in the 1940s was completely acceptable.

An excerpt from As We Do It discusses the fashion of men tipping their hats to other men, and when to do so. The authors suggest tipping hats to most men because “you might be asking him for a job or daughter sometime in the near future.” (p. 24) This further supports the sexist attitude of how men assumed “ownership” of a woman.


AS WE DO IT is a thin booklet containing examples and information for both men and women about socially acceptable mannerisms. Many would be considered derogatory to both sexes now.

Another example of women being portrayed in a certain way is in an Atlantic article written by Megan Garber called, “‘When You Supervise a Woman’: The 1940s Instructional Manual.” This article includes instructional brochures of how to teach women about the utmost basic workplace protocol. Garber suggests that it is condescending and “is both ridiculous and hilarious by today’s standards, they’re also sort of sad: a reminder of how institutionalized sexism and its analogs can be, in the workplace and beyond.”

Not much has changed when comparing the general perception of gender roles from the 1940s to now. Books and magazines about “how to get the man/ woman of your dreams” are constantly being published and brainwashing people into an unauthentic way of living. Hopefully, society can continue with the progressive momentum we have had over the last 70 years, so the next generations can experience complete equality.

Brook Williams is a senior at The University of Utah. She plans on graduating in the spring of 2019 with a degree in communication.


Mortar Board, As We Do It, University of Utah, 1940.

 Helpful Hints to College Men,” Utah Chronicle, November 28, 1940, 7.

Freshman Women Express Views on Fraternities to Reveal Many Startling Conceptions,” Utah Chronicle, November 14, 1940, 5.

Marilla Barlow, “Keep the Change,” Utah Chronicle, November 20, 1940, 4.

Garber, Megan. “‘When You Supervise a Woman’: The 1940s Instructional Manual,” The Atlantic, August 27, 2012.





How the World War II Draft Impacted the Lives of College-Aged Men at the University of Utah

By Averie Vockel

According to Allen Kent Powell, approximately 7,000 Utahns were serving in the U.S. military by June 1941. This illustrated how the draft or Selective Service Act enacted just one year prior had the ability to alter one’s reality instantly. Powell also noted that “enrollment in Utah’s colleges and universities offered another indicator of the coming war as enrolment in the fall of 1941 dropped from 10 to 25 percent below the previous year. At the University of Utah registration for the 1941 fall quarter was 3,665 or 19 percent less than the 4,085 students who registered for the previous fall quarter.” (“Utah and World War II,” p. 109)

military on campus PDF

World War II initiated the United States’s first-ever peacetime draft. Thousands were enlisted and many trained for battle on the University of Utah campus. Photo courtesy of Multimedia Archives, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah.

Students of the university saw the shock wave right in front of them, as the draft majorly impacted male students’ education and career paths. In one Utah Chronicle article, “Are We Patriots,” published May 8, 1941, the writer questions the role of the war and why young men ought to be proud to serve against their will. The author suggests there should be nothing wrong with a student who has invested themselves into their education, continuing that education.

This question of the draft was something university students had no option but to face and for some, the idea of amping up militarism or leaving their school desks for war, was not as patriotic as it posed to be. Moreover, the March 6, 1941, Utah Chronicle included a letter from student Neil P. Richards titled “The Enigma of National Defense.” Richards explains the government has placed a stricter time limit on earning an engineering degree, from four to three years. Richards implies that this is due to the ways engineering departments are relied upon to assist with national defense, and isolates an example of one faculty member taken by the government. Moreover, he explains that the draft provides no provision for engineers, meaning they may finish their program and be sent to serve on front lines rather than develop technology. It is clear from Richards’s account there was not simply a war happening in the world, but a war that impacted the everyday life of the college student.

military on campus 2 PDF

The military on the campus of the University of Utah. Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

On November 6, 1941, the Utah Chronicle detailed in an article titled “Utes Favor Militarism Short of War” the results of a survey of roughly 400 students. They were asked questions pertaining to the war and though they seemingly favored militarism, they strongly opposed adjustments to the draftable age of young men. Perhaps that was because, as outlined in a March 6, 1941, Chronicle article, that young men of university age were directly targeted by the draft. The article detailed how there could be a significant depletion of young men at the university as a result of a large draft in the following weeks that would take 410 Utah men. Or perhaps it was because the war would create a hot and volatile political climate that the young would be the only hope for recovery.

Hays Gorey, in his Chronicle article “College Men, Planners of Post War World Face Vital Issues,” explained that in order for there to be peaceful future decisions about international policies, it would be imperative to listen to various voices. Gorey suggested that the college student, specifically the college man, was the one in the best position to start creating this future.

Moreover, Heber Hart, in his Chronicle article “The War This Week: College Students Look Toward Future With Hope for Better World,” echoed the idea that college students are the future. Hart wrote, “What youth does not want is a hand in an orgy of blood and fire if it will do nothing toward bettering the world.”

The University of Utah played a key role in  World War II and its students bore much of the burden. It is clear that the war and the country’s first ever peacetime draft specifically harmed college students. In a day and age where international politics seem to be heating up and rhetoric surrounding weapons technology and development are constantly brought up by world leaders as “an option,” it is important that we don’t disregard history and the valuable lessons it has provided.

Averie Vockel is a student at the University of Utah. She is majoring in communication studies with a certificate in criminology.

“Draft May Cause Male Depletion,” Utah Chronicle, March 6, 1941, 2.

Neil P. Richards, “The Enigma of National Defense,” Utah Chronicle, March 6, 1941, 4.

“Are We Patriots,” Utah Chronicle, May 8, 1941, 4.

“Utes Favor Militarism Short of War,” Utah Chronicle, November 6, 1941, 1.

Hays Gorey, “College Men, Planners of Post War World Face Vital Issues,” Utah Chronicle, April 23, 1942, 4.

Heber Hart, “The War This Week: College Students Look Toward Future With Hope for Better World,” Utah Chronicle, October 8, 1942, 4.

Powell, Allen Kent. “Utah and World War II,” Utah Historical Quarterly 73, no. 2 (Spring 2005): 108-131.

Russian Leader Visits Campus

By Chase Thornton


Alexander Kerensky in 1917. Public domain.

Alexander Kerensky led the beginning of the Russian Revolution. He was a lawyer who pioneered the first wave of the Russian Revolution in the year 1917. He was noted as a very influential political leader in Russia and spent many of his later years traveling to other countries and states to give informative and educational speeches about policy and influence in the political system. (Whitman)

Alexander Kerensky made one of his stops at the University of Utah campus to give a speech to students, faculty and the general public about his experiences as a political leader. Kerensky, during a two-day visit to Utah, discussed “Russia and the International Situation.” Kerensky also held meetings for faculty members and students to answer questions and further discuss other topics related to the Russian condition. Kerensky was president of the Russian Democratic Provisional Government. (Utah Chronicle)

Alexander Kerensky would travel all across America teaching the general public of Russian policy and international affairs and discuss briefly of his time spent pioneering the revolution in 1917.


Kerensky at the National Press Club in 1938. Public domain.

After many years of war and despair among the Russian people there, Kerensky was able to give a vision of sight to the people of Russia escaping political turmoil and senseless violence that ensued. The Russian people celebrated on Easter Sunday, April 15th, during one of the most religious holidays for the Russian people. This signified a new era of hope and renaissance for the future generations of the Soviet Union. (Frazier)

However, it wasn’t an easy transition from war to peace, the people of Russia battled internally whether or not they will be safe from the tyranny of war. Debates of whether Russian was going to stay into the war invoke a response in the Russian Government. A telegram was sent out depicting that the war efforts will continue with all of the given treaties at hand. This telegram broke out to the public and the trust of the Russian Authorities was no longer intact, until the forceful resignation of the war minister and foreign minister.

Kerensky did not have 100% support of all people, and even had some rather outlandish ideas about communism causing the death of millions of people in Russia. He believed that concentration camps would be utilized to demolish a great number of innocent people. (Safire)

Kerensky eventually became the new Supreme Commander of the Russian Army. However, throughout his political career, he continued to support the war efforts being made which again made him considerably unpopular among his people. He ultimately decided that he needed to gain the leftist support so he rebranded his platform by including more socialists and more Mensheviks revolutionists. This was an unsuccessful attempt and never gained control or support of his people. (Simkin)


Whitman, Alden. “Alexander Kerensky Dies Here at 89,” New York Times, June 12, 1970.

“Russian Leader Visits Campus,” Utah Chronicle, February 15, 1945, 1.

Frazier, Ian. “What Ever Happened to the Russian Revolution?” Smithsonian, October 2017.

Simkin, John. “Alexander Kerensky.” Spartacus Educational, November 2017.

Safire, William. “Ghost at the Summit: The Lessons of Alexander Kerensky,” Chicago Tribune, April 2, 1993.


Women Workers in World War II

By Riley Spear

women working2

Women in World War II performed men’s jobs. Used by permission, Utah State Historical

Women played a large role in helping the United States throughout World War II. With men being called from every home to come serve on the battlefields, it allowed women to enter the labor force and have opportunities in the military. The New York Times, on November 23, 1942, said, “Women want a real role to play in the planning of tomorrow.” Not only did they give their time in the home, but abroad as well.

Prior to the women’s commitment to serve in the workforce and military, The Utah Chronicle on November 25, 1942, stated there would be university classes offered to teach women certain techniques in case they were ever needed for combat. These classes included rigorous training such as wrestling, crawling through barrels, and other conditioning activities. This class excited and prepared women for their future job opportunities. Many superiors were thrilled at the chance to teach this class because it was a step toward changing the gender stereotype. Pathfinder magazine reported training classes continued to be held across the states for women in their late teens, to early forties. The training preparation classes were receiving positive feedback, and genuinely helping women in their future job roles they would pursue to help the war cause.

women working3

Women worked in the military air force in World War II. Used by permission, Utah State Historical

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a moment in history where all citizens had to come together as a team in order to survive the war, and women were prepared to give their aid. The Utah Chronicle, on December 3, 1942, reported that the war was asking for University of Utah women with scientific training such as engineering, physics, chemistry, mathematics and accounting. The need for help was dire, and it was urgent women were made aware of their need. The War Manpower Commission posted an advertisement that read, “Longing won’t bring him back sooner…GET A WAR JOB,” in order to encourage women to help. Posters such as these motivated women to serve their country and also help their men. Women responded, coming to serve in the country as industrial workers, and abroad filling the gaping hole in the U.S. labor force.

In San Diego, CLICK Magazine reported on February 1, 1944, “Women were becoming letter carriers, bus drivers, high altitude window washers, milk deliverers, and office workers.” An assortment of positions were left vacant and women were fulfilling them without hesitation. The American Magazine wrote an issue in January 1943 on a young women named Dorothy Vogley. When the war called for women employees she seized an opportunity at Timken Rolling Bearing Co. as a testing machine operator. “At first,” noted the article, “the strange hours put her at odds end with the world, but now she believes working in the war industry has made her a new, more self-reliant person.” (p. 11) The war was able to offer women a chance to prove their worth, and spread awareness that women were capable. In some cases, such as Vogley’s, it was also a realization and an inspiration to other women.

working women

Women working alongside each other in hard hats and overalls. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

Women’s involvement in the war was a huge turning for the United States, and in gender stereotypes. “The war may have demonstrated to employers that women could function well in jobs that had previously been male domains,” wrote Claudia D. Golding in her research article “The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women’s Employment.” After the war, and when men returned, many women were forced out of their jobs. However, within five years the percentage of women in the labor force increased dramatically. Golding’s data prove that during wartime 24.7 percent of the labor force participation rates were made up of women, and by 1950, five years after the war had ended, it increased to 26 percent. This demonstrates the determination and perseverance women continued to strive for during and following the war.

The Utah Chronicle on December 3, 1942, reported, “Women are needed, and the time is past stereotypes.” It is hard to see light in horrible sequences of events such as war. However, women took it by the reigns and demonstrated their worth, and value. The U.S. would have suffered greatly without the hard work women gave in all fields of occupations. The recognition deserved for their performance is endless. “This is a women’s war as well as a man’s,” said Oveta Culp Hobby, director of the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps, in the 1942 New York Times story.

Riley Spear is a senior at the University of Utah. She is studying journalism and will graduate in spring 2019.


Advertisement for women workers, Office for the War Manpower Commission, 1944.

San Diego: A Woman’s Town,” Click, February 1, 1944.

Girl on the Midnight Shift,” American, January 1943.

Amazons of Aberdeen,” Pathfinder, July 1942.

“7,000,000 Women Workers Seen in War Plants before Peace Comes,” New York Times, November 23, 1942, 1.

“Coed Commandos Out to Win War and Men,” Utah Chronicle, November 24, 1942, 4.

“Dean of Women Lists Coed Opportunities,” Utah Chronicle, December 3, 1942, 3.

Golden, Claudia. “The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women’s Employment,” American Economic Review 81, no. 4 (September 1991): 741-56.

The History of Cadet Nurses and Their Struggle for Veterans Rights

By Catherine Simmons

In the years leading up to WWll, jobs were in short supply. However, once America entered the war, that all changed. Because so many men signed up, employees of every kind were desperately needed. Nurses were perhaps needed most.


University of Utah–Cadet Nurses War Vets. Salt Lake Tribune Negative Collection, Utah State History.

In 1943, Frances Bolton introduced a bill to create a governmental program to recruit and train nurses. (“Short History”) It passed just a few months later. This led to a countrywide mass recruitment, particularly in universities. The University of Utah formed a club for all Cadet Nurses and even practiced drill with other ASTP, or Army Specialized Training Program, students. They often got in uniform and stood in formations and even ran practice exercises. (Cutler) There were numerous advertisements calling women to join the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps, similar to the advertisements calling men to join the service. At one point, 80 percent of nurses in the United States were part of the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps. (“Short History”)


St. Marks Hospital Cadet Nurses. Salt Lake Tribune Negative Collection, Utah State History.

Their 30-month training was rigorous and demanding. There was a lot of school work as well as training, not to mention the strict curfews. (Bergman) But they all said they felt an obligation to help the young men and their country.

One nurse, Eunice E. Smolak, was assigned to Bushnell General Hospital where she treated wounded servicemen and prisoners of war. She wrote about how difficult it was, emotionally and physically, to care for those wounded soldiers, and that she would never forget those experiences. (“We Remember”) Each nurse was greatly affected by what she saw and heard in those hospitals. It was not an easy job. It was physically, emotionally and psychologically demanding. However, despite the hardship each cadet nurse faced, they were not considered veterans.

Numerous pleas have been submitted asking to change the status of cadet nurses to eligible veterans. A wave of activism has swept across the country. Former cadet nurses are sending letters and calling all their cadet friends and acquaintances, letting everyone know what they are trying to achieve. Letters were sent out begging for signatures on their petition. Cadet nurses and their families have sent letters to the editor in newspapers all over the country, including the Columbia (MO) Daily Tribune, asking for recognition of their efforts and sacrifice. The U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps is, in fact, the only uniformed force that has not received veterans status. That means they do not qualify for any of those benefits and services. (Karins)

On February 6, 2017, H.R. 1168, the United States Cadet Nurse Corps Equity Act, was introduced to Congress. It states that any member of the United States Nurse Corps who served between July 1, 1943, and December 31, 1948, is qualified to full veteran status, including all benefits, although those benefits won’t be back-paid. (Lowey) Seventeen representatives cosponsored the bill. However, despite all the effort put in by so many, nothing has come of it. Almost two years later and it has still not passed in the House of Representatives.

Thousands of women sacrificed so much of their time and energy, just doing their duty to their country and their fellow Americans and the least we can do is give them what they are owed. If we wait much longer, there will be no nurses left to recognize.

Catherine Simmons is a Utah resident who has a degree in communication from the University of Utah. She is married with a beautiful puppy.  She loves history and reading and dreams of becoming an author. 


Robert Cutler, “Campus in Crisis,” Utah Chronicle, November 4, 1943.

Belcher, David. “Cadet Corps Seeks Congressional Recognition: World War II Nurses Petition Congress for Veterans’ Benefits, Honors,” American Journal of Nursing 103, no. 3 (2005): 130-31.

Doona, Mary Ellen. “Cadet Nurse Corps,” Massachusetts Report on Nursing 11, no. 1 (March 2013): 6.

Karins, Jessica. “U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps members seek veteran status,” Columbia Daily Tribune, August 20, 2018.

Bergman, Julia. “All but forgotten: Cadet nurses reflect on service during WWII,” The Day, November 3, 2018.

Rep. Nita Lowey, H.R. 1168, United States Cadet Nurse Corps Equity Act.

Alissa Sauer, “Overdue Recognitions for WWII Cadet Nurse Corps,” Veteran Aid, April 3, 2018

Short History of Military Nursing: U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps,” Ebling Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison, August 18, 2017.

“We Remember: Eunice E. Smolak,” USCadetNurse.org.

The Coon Chicken Inn and Utah’s Hidden History of Racism

By Chris Oregon

The Coon Chicken Inn was a fried chicken restaurant chain located in the Pacific Northwest and owned by Maxon Lester Graham and his wife Adelaide. The first Coon Chicken Inn was established in 1925 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Coon Chicken Inn was famously known for its racist “coon” caricature logo that was used to promote the authenticity of the southern-style food. At the entrance of the restaurant was a 12-foot “coon head.” Customers entered through the mouth, which had exaggerated large lips and teeth. This same entrance was then used for the other two locations that opened later. Despite protests against the racial slurs and racist caricatures the stores remained open until the late 1950s. Even though the restaurant was racist, the only complaint from the city was when it heard rumors that operators were serving alcohol. On March 11, 1927, The Salt Lake Telegram wrote about the trial that Graham went to for “conducting a disorderly house,” because officers had claimed that they found liquor on three of the restaurant’s tables. (“Graham Enters Not Guilty Plea”)



Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Catherine Roth writes that the large “coon head” used for the entrance of the building was a gimmick to attract customers. (“The Coon Chicken Inn”) Graham also used the logo on postcards, newspaper advertisements, children’s fans, delivery cars, and matchboxes as promotion.

After gaining a lot of success, Graham later opened two more locations in Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington. Each location had the “coon head” entrance that was used with the first location to attract customers. The restaurant not only provided food for its customers but entertainment as well. The Utah Chronicle mentioned that the restaurant offered dancing and talented local musicians to entertain customers. (“What We’ll Do”) The Coon Chicken Inn was popular among University of Utah students; the Interfraternity Council planned a stag party for students and the restaurant was chosen to host its festivities. (“Greek Council”) Popular among University of Utah students, several fraternities chose to hold events such as banquets at the restaurant because it had a dance floor and live music for everyone to enjoy. (“The Town Chatter”) Variety magazine also mentioned in its April 7, 1937, issue that the Coon Chicken Inn was a great spot for out-of-state bands to work with local musicians, which helped attract customers.


Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Despite being racist, the restaurant was very successful, opening a total of three locations in three different cities. After opening in Seattle in 1930, Graham was met with protests. That same year the Seattle branch of the National Association for the Advancement for Colored People (NAACP) and the African-American newspaper, the Northwest Enterprise, protested the opening of the restaurant and even threatened Graham “with a lawsuit for libel and defamation of race.” In response, Graham agreed to change his advertising styles by “removing the word ‘Coon’ from the restaurant’s delivery and also by repainting the ‘Coon head’ entrance to the restaurant.” Instead of the “coon head” being black he decided to paint the skin color blue to avoid further issues. Graham also canceled his order of 1,000 car tire covers to please the protesters and not get in legal trouble. In the end, Graham removed the “Coon head” from public view and decided to close the restaurant doors for good. (Roth, “The Coon Chicken Inn”)

Today, the original Coon Chicken Inn building is gone. Despite the restaurant being shut down, Coon Chicken Inn remains relevant today due to the collectibles being sold online as black memorabilia. In 2017, Cook’s Garage, a Texas restaurant, caused outrage when customers noticed a Coon Chicken Inn neon sign on its walls. After receiving so much backlash, the owner said the sign wasn’t there to offend anyone, but to display Americana history. (Robinson) Even though the restaurant has been closed since the 1950s, it is still making headlines to this day. It’s still a relevant topic due to its racism. The Coon Chicken Inn will forever be a part of Utah history.

Chris Oregon is a senior at the University of Utah. He is majoring in mass communication with an emphasis in journalism and minoring in Spanish.


Graham Enters Not Guilty Plea,” Salt Lake Telegram, March 11, 1927, 2.

The Town Chatter,” Utah Chronicle, December 21, 1932, 2.

What We’ll Do,” Utah Chronicle, January 25, 1934, 2.

Greek Council Chooses Rulers,” Utah Chronicle, May 21, 1936, 1.

“Salt Lake City Sets Bands for Summer,” Variety, April 7, 1937, 50.

Advertisement, Coon Chicken Inn, Utah Chronicle, September 28, 1944, 4.

Roth, Catherine. “Coon Chicken Inn (Seattle),” HistoryLink.org, October 16, 2009.

Roth, Catherine. “The Coon Chicken Inn: North Seattle’s Beacon of Bigotry,” Seattle Civil Rights & Labor History Project, University of Washington, 2009.

Robinson, Elliott. “The Coon Chicken Inn Lives,” CreativeTension.org, 2017.