Blood Drive Saves Lives

By Aubrey R. Olsen

After the end of World War II and the Korean War, the world, and the United States, were on edge waiting for the next war to break out. It wasn’t long until the Vietnam War started and many were back to serving, getting deployed and fighting for our country. With this being the case, injuries were plentiful and blood was in a very high demand. In an effort to help with the massive blood shortage the United States was facing, coeds at the University of Utah held a week long blood drive in hopes of doing their part for the war here in Utah, while so many were fighting for the United States in Vietnam.

The Blood drive was organized and ran by cochairmen Deanne Simmons and ROTC sponsor Sally Anderson. They encouraged all students, faculty and staff to participate and do their part for our country by participating in the blood drive from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. in the Union from November 13, 1961 to November 17, 1961. The goal was to donate and collect a total of 500 pints of blood in the span of that one school week, Monday through Friday.

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Blood drive cochairs Deanne Simmons, left, and Sally Anderson. Image appeared in the November 13, 1961, issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle.

According to the November 13, 1961, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle, “Coed ‘Vampires’ to Stage Bloodletting on U Campus,” coeds were encouraged to donate blood by being given incentives as motivation. Simmons and Anderson created a contest in which the club or organization on the University of Utah Campus that donated the most blood would be rewarded with prizes. There were four different categories that students could claim they were a part of as a way to win the prize. The categories were fraternal, service and religious, residence hall, and military.

An encouragement that was frequently used around campus and in the entire weeks issues of the Utah Chronicle was to do your part for our country while the brave young men are fighting and do what you can on the “home front.”

On top of having incentives and prizes as a reason for coeds to donate, it was announced in the November 14, 1961, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle “Blood, Sweat and Tears Not Necessary – Just Blood,” that if coeds were to donate to the blood bank during the blood drive, they would be able to draw from the blood bank for free at any point in time in the future for free. This was a really big deal for people as the memory of World War II was still fresh on people’s minds and the fear and constant threat of there being another war on the United States “home turf” loomed in the back of people’s minds.

By the end of the first day of the week which was full of events and donations, University of Utah students, staff and faculty were able to donate a total of one hundred and seven pints of blood. According to the November 15, 1961, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle in an article titled, “Blood Oozes from Donors as Utes Donate 107 Pints,” students were continuously encouraged by blood drive sponsors who were stressing the importance of building a large reserve of blood. These encouragements worked as donations continued to flood in over the course of the next 4 days.

It was stated in the November 17, 1961, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle Article “U Blood Drive Ends With Counts in Red,” at the end of the week, the students, faculty and staff had donated a total of over 474 pints. Carolyn Wheeler, chief nurse claimed that even though the University didn’t meet their original goal of donating a total of 500 pints, the University of Utah and local blood banks are taking the week as a win and are “proud of the outcome and number of donations made.”

The events that took place in November of 1961 during the blood drive on the University of Utah’s campus are still vastly important to us today for many reasons. Blood donations always seem to be in short supply and blood banks and the American Red Cross Association are constantly in search of blood donations to help with people’s medical needs both locally, nationally and internationally.

Another thing we can learn from and relate to with the blood drive of 1961 is the current state of the United States and the fact that we’ve been involved in a constant war in Afghanistan since 2001. While many of us aren’t actively in the United States Military or plan on joining the United States Military, we could help with the war efforts by donating blood to those injured in the war.

Aubrey R. Olsen graduated from the University of Utah with a Bachelor of Science in Strategic Communication in December 2019 and is working in advertising.

Primary Sources

Blood, Sweat and Tears Not Necessary – Just Blood,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 14, 1961.

Blood Oozes from Donors as Utes Donate 107 Pints,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 15, 1961.

Coed ‘Vampires’ to Stage Bloodletting on U Campus,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 13, 1961.

U Blood Drive Ends with Count in Red,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 17, 1961.

Utes Donate 269 Pints; Blood Drive Ends Today,Daily Utah Chronicle, November 16, 1961.

How Football Gave and Took from the Borich Family  

By Hunter H. Miller

Joe Borich was not your typical athlete. Borich, a two-sport star at Murray High School, originally began his college career at the University of Utah as a member of the Utah Men’s Basketball team. His freshman year, Borich was the second-leading scorer behind the eventual number-one NBA Draft pick Billy McGill, according to the Deseret News on Dec. 3, 2000. That is when the football team came calling. “I was shooting hoops one day in the Einar Nelson Fieldhouse, and the football trainer came in and said coach [Ray] Nagel wanted my butt on the football field,” Borich told the Deseret News. That’s when Borich became a two-sport star for the Utes.

Borich would go on to have an impressive career for the University of Utah football team. Borich finished his career with seven receiving touchdowns, including five in the 1961 season, according to Ute Stats. In today’s game of football, five touchdown catches is hardly an impressive feat, in fact, in 2018 the leading receiver in the country, John Ursua, caught 16 touchdowns according to Sports-Reference, more than three times that of Joe Borich in 1961. However, in the era of football in the 1960s, passing had yet to be used frequently by football teams. Most receivers were lucky to finish their career with a single touchdown, making Borich’s five in 1961, the sixth-most by any player in the country that season according to Sports-Reference.

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Human brain suffering from chronic traumatic encephalopathy compared to a normal, healthy brain. Used by permission, Boston University Research: CTE Center.

Borich would never go on to play professional football, although the chances were there for the Utah star. Instead, Borich would go on to join the Army Reserve, being stationed in California, before becoming a Police Officer for Salt Lake County, according to the Deseret News on Dec. 3, 2000.

While Borich never played football beyond the college level, the sport continued to be a staple in the Borich household. Borich’s son, Mike Borich, would go on to play for Snow College before working as an assistant coach for BYU and eventually the NFL’s Chicago Bears, according to ESPN on October 22, 2009. Football was life for much of the Borich family until it took the life of one of them.

According to Mike Borich’s obituary, the eldest of Joe Borich’s two sons died on Feb. 9, 2009, at his home in Midvale, Utah, at the age of 42. Much like Joe Borich would be one of the first receivers to find success in the game of college football, his son Mike’s death would prove to be a groundbreaking occurrence for the sport.

Eight months following the death of Mike Borich, ESPN reported that the Boston University School of Medicine had found signs of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of Mike Borich. It was the first time that CTE had been found in a player who did not play beyond the college football level. According to the Boston University CTE Research Center, “(CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in people with a history of repetitive brain trauma (often athletes), including symptomatic concussions as well as asymptomatic subconcussive hits to the head that do not cause symptoms. CTE has been known to affect boxers since the 1920s. In recent years, reports have been published of neuropathologically confirmed CTE found in other athletes, including football and hockey players (playing and retired), as well as in military veterans who have a history of repetitive brain trauma.”

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Concussions are serious brain injury suffered when the skull is jolted or impacted by a hard surface. The brain shifts, slamming against the skull, causing damage and swelling to the brain. Concussions can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Used by permission, Max Andrews.

Mike Borich’s death led to increased awareness of CTE and the effects that it can have on those who suffer from it. But while his death was just the start of CTE awareness in sports, it was the end of a struggle for the Borich family. According to the Denver Post, Joe Borich found relief in the CTE diagnosis in his son as it provided some answers for Mike’s peculiar behavior and subsequent drug addiction in the years leading to his death.

Joe Borich was an accomplished athlete and someone who gave a large portion of his young life to the game of football. But while football gave Borich so much in his life, it has also taken away a large part of it. He once was a groundbreaking athlete, finding success on the football field in ways that were decades ahead of his time. But it may be a groundbreaking occurrence in his life off of the field that has a more lasting impact on his life and the life of others who take part in the sport of football. As researchers and doctors continue to study CTE and look for ways to negate the effects that head trauma can have on a person, Borich recognized the significance of his son’s death and the positive impact it can have.

Recently CTE was discovered in 110 of 111 brains of former professional football players, according to  The New York Times, July 25, 2017, and it is believed that at least 9.6% of NFL players will suffer from CTE, according to a recent study (Binney and Bachynski). Joe Borich recognized that the death of his son could provide knowledge about the disease and increase awareness about the dangers of CTE. “If this study can help somehow progress the knowledge, it’s worth it,” he said (Denver Post).

Hunter Miller is a senior at the University of Utah majoring in communication. Hunter is also a reporter for ESPN 960 covering BYU Athletics.

Primary Sources

“Athletic Borich leads by example,” The Deseret News, December 3, 2000.

Joe Borich,” Ute Stats.

“Degenerative disease found in donated brain of former college player,” Denver Post, May 6, 2016.

“Player’s brain shows signs of CTE,” ESPN, October 22, 2009.

Frequently Asked Questions About CTE,” Boston University Research: CTE Center.

Mike Joe Borich,” Legacy.com, February 11, 2009.

“110 N.F.L. Brains,” The New York Times, July 25, 2017.

Zachary O. Binney and Kathleen E. Bachynski, “Estimating the prevalence at death of CTE neuropathology among professional football players,” Neurology 92, no. 1 (January 1, 2019).

Joe Borich,” SportsReference.com.

2018 College Football Year Summary,” SportsReference.com.

 

Dr. Ewart Swinyard and his Contribution to Pharmaceutical Progress in Universities

By Bryce Merrill

Ewart A. Swinyard was born January 3, 1909, in Logan, Utah. Later in life he was a student, professor and dean of the College of Pharmacy at the University of Utah. He taught the students about advances made in the field of pharmaceutical research and founded the U’s school of Alcoholism and Drugs. He was constantly looking at the future of pharmacology and felt the need to instill that urgency in students of the field as well. He died on July 10, 1997.

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Dr. Ewart A. Swinyard in 1961. He delivered a lecture around this time about the future of pharmacology on campus. From The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 20, 1961.

Swinyard had a degree in zoology from Utah State University and later received a degree in pharmacology from the University of Utah, Idaho State University, and the University of Minnesota each. (The Deseret News) The Provo Sunday Herald reported that he was one of the first people to get a graduate degree from the University of Utah in 1947. The Vernal Express noted that he even received an honorary doctorate from Utah State University in 1983 in the university’s 90th commencement.

Swinyard was interested in all advances in the pharmaceutical field he stated in an address on the University of Utah Campus in 1961. He said he hoped that expenditures in drug research would increase which would indicate more progress was being made in the field. (The Daily Utah Chronicle) He also discussed methods used to discover new drugs. The methods he discussed were; accidents, specifically designed chemical structures, and screening of new drugs, as reported by the Chronicle before his talk on October 19, 1961.

In a speech Swinyard gave in 1977 titled “Research and Graduate Education in Pharmacy: Looking Back – Looking Forward” he expressed his concern with the state of the contributions of universities and colleges to progress in the field. He emphasized that “tomorrow … is being made today” to point out that if the university did not focus on educating students better and increasing its contribution to science it could be left behind in the future. (Ewart Anslie Swinyard Papers, Box 8, Folder 1)

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Dr. Swinyard running an experiment on a mouse while researching a cure for epilepsy in 1967. From The Daily Utah Chronicle, May 9, 1967.

One of the focuses of Swinyard’s work was finding a cure for seizures and epilepsy. The Salt Lake Telegram, on August 13, 1949, reported he was part of a team doing research on epilepsy. Another article, again in The Daily Utah Chronicle on May 9, 1967, states that Dr. Swinyard had “been investigating convulsive disorders for 20 years.” His research involving mice was cited by Dr. David L. Hiner, the then dean of the School of Pharmacy, as getting “health sciences … closer to the solution of the control of epileptic seizures than ever before.”

Eighteen years later The Daily Utah Chronicle published an article about Swinyard’s continued research on curing epilepsy. At that time, he was the director of the Antiepileptic Drug Development Laboratory in the U’s College of Pharmacy. He said the “NIH (National Institute of Health) decided to start a program of their own” when it found out no pharmaceutical firm was actively working on an anti-epileptic drug.

Dr. Ewart A. Swinyard’s contributions as the dean and founder of the University of Utah’s College of Pharmacy helped shape the school’s future thanks to his forward-thinking attitude. (The Deseret News) Dr. Swinyard was an important part of the university’s past, present, and future due to his foresight and focus. His constant commitment to furthering not just the school’s place in its field but to developing life changing drugs to help others, Dr. Swinyard’s presence is felt by all those who have benefited from the School of Pharmacy, be they student or teacher.

Bryce Merrill is a senior at the University of Utah. He is majoring in strategic communication and minoring in sociology.

Primary Sources

900 Students Get Diplomas,” Provo Sunday Herald, June 15, 1947, 5.

DeVan Shumway, “Physician Sees Possibility Of Cure for Epilepsy,” Salt Lake Telegram, August 13, 1949, 10.

Elaine Krans, “Dr. Ewart Swinyard Set Lecture On ‘Drugs From Laboratory To Man,’” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 19, 1961, 1.

Swinyard Cites Progress In Pharmacy Research,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 20, 1961, 1.

Epileptic Control,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, May 9, 1967, 5.

Researchers test mice for cure of seizures,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, September 30, 1985, 13.

USU Graduates Listed for 1983,” Vernal Express, May 25, 1983, 20.

Funeral set for Ewart A. Swinyard,” Deseret News, July 14, 1997.

Secondary Source

Swinyard, Ewart Anslie. The Ewart Anslie Swinyard Papers, 1945-1987. Box 8, Folder 1, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Spring Blood Drive: Urgent Blood Need from University of Utah Students

By Dabin Kim

The American Red Cross (ARC) annually provides blood drive at the campus for students to participate in donating blood at the University of Utah. During World War I.  ARC had some time being an important organization, especially in Utah. Before the United States officially participated in the war, a Red Cross was helping out other participated European countries by sending doctors, nurses or any other medical supplies. As the U.S started to be in WWI, New Mexico and Utah were a lot helped by ARC as they were in need of doctors and medical supplies. (“Utah Historical Quarterly,” 2019) As ARC played a big role, it became one of the powerful institutions in Utah. (Watson, 2017)

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Carol Wathen, working as a nurse at American Red Cross, is checking blood pressure for Ralph Rhudy who was a former student at the University of Utah. Originally published in The Daily Utah Chronicle on April 27, 1961.

Comparing to previous participants from 1960s, students started to not give attention to the blood drive at the campus. As it became urgent and needed many students to be motivated, ARC actively advertised through Daily Utah Chronicle.

Not just giving out flyers and advertising the opening time of blood clinic and location of the spring blood drive, Red Cross started using a different strategy to which was advertising differently. Daily Utah Chronicle included Betty Lou Sine’s announcement who could affect powerfully for students on April 25, 1961. As a representative of the army who were supporting the drive, have made an announcement to acknowledge for an active participation who hesitates for the donation.

Students who were over 18 with a minimum of 110 pounds were all qualified to donate. The signed permission from parents needed was the man who is not married and under 18 mentioned on April 27, 1961, by Daily Utah Chronicle.

At the Union Ballroom at the University of Utah, some physicians were attending to receive any question and checked the students who could be qualified to participate in the donation. Even the blood clinic was open for all students to visit from 8 a.m. until 4 p.m. listed on April 25, 1961, by Daily Utah Chronicle.

Red Cross elaborated about why it is stressing, and they are in a situation in need of people. It was urgently needed by physicians and surgeons “stock of whole blood and plasma” to use in an emergency situation or during operation reported on April 25, 1961, by Daily Utah Chronicle.

As participants were limited to 39 students, Daily Utah Chronicle published on April 27, 1961, showed how easy to donate blood at the blood drive. It was easily explained by the photograph with John Allred who was an ROTC student donating blood by the Red Cross worker Tella Okubo.

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American Red Cross worker Tella Okubo is helping a volunteer, John Allred, donate his blood. The ROTC sponsored this campaign. Originally published in The Daily Utah Chronicle on April 26, 1961.

By trying out various strategy of advertising the spring blood drive at the University of Utah campus such as giving a strong announcement from the head of army, the participation rate has been significantly recorded higher rate. On May 15, 1961, an award who won the competition by winning for donating the blood most was introduced by Daily Utah Chronicle. Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity and the Air Force ROTC were both awarded the first place for the recent spring blood drive.

Continuance to this award announcement, Utes received another award from Red Cross on May 26, 1961, announced by Daily Utah Chronicle. Red Cross provided an award for university by contribution to their recent blood drive at the campus. A. Ray Olpin had received a reward for representing the University of Utah.

The semiannual blood drive was re-announced through Daily Utah Chronicle on April 16, 1962, about their combined sponsorship from the Army, Air Force and Red cross. The advertisement brought different reasoning for blood donation. The quote from Mr. Streadbeck who was a former coordinator for a blood drive at the University of Utah, was motivating the sympathy and response saying, “You can share your good health by giving blood to the less fortunate”.

‘Spring Blood Drive’ campaign at the University of Utah starting with 39 participants were improved through different advertising strategies by advertising with Daily Utah Chronicle. After a year passed from 1961’s spring blood drive brought a different type of advantages for blood donation. Blood drive institution presented another promising blood for potential participants. Students who regularly donate blood while they are as a student at the University of Utah will get advantage by being served privilege when receiving blood from Red Cross when the participant or their family requires blood having an emergency. Until nowadays, University of Utah holds campaign from College of Health with a same way to motivate student’s blood donation. (Robinson, 2017)

Dabin Kim is a senior at the university of Utah. She majors in communication with an emphasis in journalism and film studies.

Primary Sources

“Spring Blood Call Sounds for U Today,” Daily Utah Chronicle, April 25, 1961.

“Campus Spring Blood Drive Continues Today,” Daily Utah Chronicle, April 26, 1961.

“Last Chance to Donate Blood Offered Today,” Daily Utah Chronicle, April 27, 1961.

“Utah Receive Red Cross Award,” Daily Utah Chronicle, May 26, 1961.

“Share Health, Give Blood, Says Official,” Daily Utah Chronicle, April 16, 1962.

“Win Blood Drive,” Daily Utah Chronicle, May 15, 1962.

Secondary Sources

“Remembering the Great War, 1918-2018.” Utah Historical Quarterly 86, no. 3 (Summer 2018). Special issue dedicated to the topic.

Robinson, Zach. “Why Should You Donate Blood,” University of Utah HealthFeed Blog, March 7, 2017.

Watson, Susan. “A History of Service: The American Red Cross During World War I,” Red Cross Chat, American Red Cross, April 10, 2017.

 

Understanding Dr. Lloyd Beidler and His Passion: Taste

By Reem Ikram

Birthday cake, apple pie, chocolate milkshake and spicy buffalo wings. What do they all have in common? Well, they all are examples of flavors that have been synthesized and added to most of our favorite foods. That’s how we have snacks like very berry flavored chewing gum and ranch flavored Doritos. So, how did we manage to do that? Two words, Lloyd Beidler. Widely regarded as “The father of taste physiology,” Dr. Lloyd M. Beidler dedicated a majority of his life to researching and understanding the science of taste buds. His work paved the way for various scientists, the innovations for synthesized flavors, and as well as captivated many into recognizing the functions of our very own taste receptors.

Beidler’s love and energy for science and understanding how things work has been a part of his identity since he was a boy. The Orlando Sentinel shares how as a child he spent most of his time building gadgets from junkyard scraps and building his own lab tables and equipment. He has always been eager and dedicated to learn.

The reason taste became his muse was because it was something humans used frequently. We as a species rely on a few physiological functions such as maintaining energy and passing on our genetic code in order to survive. Beidler felt like it was important to hone in on one of those subjects. When speaking to school children, he would share how eating and sex were the most important things in life. Both functions intrigued him since they both involved taste and smell. His passion for understanding life led him to then invest in comprehending the function of consumption and its biomechanics. And that is how taste became his first love. (Ost)

If you were ever to scout Beidler, you would find him in his office, delving further into his studies behind a large photograph of a tongue with enlarged taste buds dripping with melted ice cream. As a professor at the University of Florida, he managed to win the hearts of many, teaching and encouraging students. “Beidler nonetheless inspires warm feelings from many who know him. They cite his endless energy and ideas, soft heart and encouragement of students’ independent research.” (Ost) His energy for sharing knowledge earned him a notable reputation as a professor and a scientist. Both of which followed him all around the world, as he gave multiple lectures and consultations with many. (Sims)

Though Beidler was a spectacular professor, he actually gained worldly recognition by discovering the renewal of cells within taste buds. According to the National Academy of Sciences, “Beidler focused on measuring taste receptor potentials using an electronic summator, a tool which quantifies electro-physiological activities of sensory nerves used for taste. Beidler was one of the first researchers to provide concrete evidence that taste buds continually die and get replaced.” This find then launched Beidler into sharing his studies. For the Sigma Xi national research society, Beidler managed to attend 20 universities in nine states lecturing his groundwork. He gave talks in Montana, the Dakotas, Missouri, Utah, Colorado, and other states, according to the Tallahassee Democrat, The Daily Provo Herald and Colorado Transcript.

Beidler’s lectures, titled “The Biological Approach to Taste,” gave insight to the response of taste receptors and analyzed the relation between them and chemical stimulation. According to his lecture at the University of Utah on March 29, 1961, chemical sensitivity was one of the earliest developments in animal evolution. All of which aided early humans in food searching, food selection, mating and detection of prey. He identifies various taste bud components and how they consist of chemically sensitive cells that hold finger-like structures which project into the saliva covering the tongue. Beidler also added how human taste impulses are transmitted to the brain by taste nerves and how his analysis now enables scientists to understand taste phenomena in man and the laws that describe them. (Evans)

Following his lecture tour, Dr. Lloyd M. Beidler continued on his research. A fun and notable experiment in which he conducted was in March 1964 as reported by Science News Letter. The experiment focused on the taste sense of children for sweetness tested. In the study, ten children, ages ranging from four to twelve years, were given a series of tests to determine how well they were able to distinguish between degrees of sweetness and saltiness. The children sat at a drugstore counter in front of a shiny box-like machine. The machine then would dispense liquids of three degrees of either saltiness or sweetness. Following the tasting, the children then had to pull one of the three levers to identify what they considered to be the sweetest or saltiest. If a child answered correctly, a nickel dropped out of the machine and the child was rewarded. If answered wrong, the child would get nothing. In both cases, the machine continued pouring out three more glassfulls for them until their 35 minute experiment session ended.  Beidler explained how children were used to experiment since they were easily motivated. His experiment worked wonders on the kids until they began to lose interest after building up a stockpile of hard cash (Society for Science & the Public, 1964).

With Beidler’s drive and passion, research wasn’t the only thing he succeeded in. He also managed to make many more accomplishments during his lifetime. Some of his other major successes included; American Physiological Society’s Bowditch Lectureship for 1959; appointment by John F. Kennedy as the Science Coordinator of U.S. Science Exhibits for the Seattle World’s Fair in 1961; co-founded, with Dan Kenshalo, the psychobiology program at FSU in 1965; Honorary Doctor of Law degree from Muhlenberg College in 1969; FSU’s Robert O. Lawton Distinguished Professorship in 1971; election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1974; American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 1975; Resolution of Commendation from Florida’s House of Representatives and Senate in 1987; recipient of the National Institutes of Health Javits Neuroscience Award; served on the nominating committee for the Nobel Prize Award; Board of Directors of the Museum of Electricity; and a member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (Sims, 2003).

To truly understand Dr. Lloyd M. Beidler and his passion completely would take more than reading a college article. To fully capture Beidler and what he made his life about would take a lifetime. As a remarkable educator and an endearing enthusiast for knowledge and life, he managed to impact a lot more than physiology and food science, He innovated the way we understand science, food and how we eat.

Reem Ikram is a senior at the University of Utah majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism. She hopes to find a career in television news, magazine publishing or entertainment media. To watch her as she continues on her journey, you can follow her on instagram @thereeemster.  

Sources

D. Evans, “Beidler Reveals Taste Sense Perfected Early,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 30, 1961.

Lloyd M. Beider,” National Academy of Sciences.

Laura Ost, “HIS RESEARCH ALWAYS ON THE TIP OF TONGUE,” Orlando Sentinel, April 26, 1987.

“Physiologist Leaves For Lecture Tour,” Tallahassee Democrat, March 26, 1961.

Physiology Prof to Speak Tonight,” Provo Daily Herald, March 30, 1961.

Dr. Lloyd Mumbauer Beidler Jr.,” Tallahassee Democrat, August 10, 2003.

“To Lecture Here,” Colorado Transcript, February 23, 1961.

Florida Prof to Discuss ‘Taste,'” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 27, 1961.

“‘Why of Taste’ Sets Speech By Sigma Xi,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 28, 1961.

 

University Duty of Care for Student Deaths in Athletics

By Gloria M. Hammond

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Doug Bingham is pictured next to an article encouraging the attendance of a University wrestling match. The photo was published in February 1960, one year prior to his death. Courtesy of The Daily Utah Chronicle and J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Participating in athletics can sometimes be risky business. Sports-related injuries are common on college campuses, and athlete fatalities are not unheard of either. This risk of harm poses an important question: Do universities possess a duty of care to their student athletes in the event of a sports-related injury or death?

Michelle D. McGirt, a sports law scholar, offers some insight into potential answers to this question by analyzing the relationship between universities and student athletes through the framework of U.S. common law. McGirt offers her analysis using the legal decisions of cases involving student athlete injury or death within the United States. The application of legal discourse involving this issue provides a clearer understanding as to why there ought to be a special duty of care offered to student athletes that exceeds that of a typical student.

McGirt argues that universities do, in fact, have an imposed duty of care to their student athletes. (McGirt, p. 12) This duty is based on a mutual dependence between the athlete and the university. Student athletes rely on the university to receive an education and hone their physical abilities, while the university receives economic benefits as well as increased student enthusiasm and involvement in campus sporting events. While the student athlete is not an employee of the university, McGirt argues that it is important to distinguish them from private students due to the nature of the relationship universities have with campus sports. (McGirt, p. 10)

Based on legal precedent, McGirt argues that universities are rarely liable for the injury or death of a student athlete. However, the courts have recognized and stated that there is a special duty of care that universities have toward student athletes, and those involved in campus sports should hold a special standing in comparison to the private student body. Although universities may not suffer legal recourse for a sports-related death, examples of how these institutions handle and memorialize athlete fatalities can be observed through historical findings.

Findings

An article published in the Arizona Republic reported in February 1961 that University of Utah student Doug Bingham had died after suffering an apparent heart attack during a wrestling match in Wyoming. The article highlights Bingham’s prior good health and academic standing, as well as his widow and three young children.

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Front page headline from The Daily Utah Chronicle, March 1961. University fundraisers aim to pay tribute to student athletes who are injured or deceased. Courtesy of The Daily Utah Chronicle and J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

A tribute for Doug Bingham was published in the Daily Utah Chronicle in February 1961. The Chronicle is a paper for the University of Utah community that is highly circulated on campus. The tribute highlights Bingham’s accomplishments and hopes that his untimely death will “carry a moral and a thought into every university student in America.” This particular quote emphasizes the reach of Bingham’s death, and the moral obligations that all students ought to have toward their peers. A follow-up article titled “Traditions” was published in the Daily Utah Chronicle in February 1961 to further explain the incident and urge students to “do their part to help right a tragic incident.”

A sense of duty to Bingham’s memory and surviving family was sparked when Floyd Dyches, with the University of Utah campus police, wrote a letter to the editor of the Daily Utah Chronicle in March 1961. Dyches urged the student body to “make a Doug Bingham fund” in order to compensate his family for the loss of their husband and father. Jackie Black, chairman of the Union Talent Extravaganza, announced in an article published in the Daily Utah Chronicle in March 1961 that all proceeds from the yearly school talent show would be donated to the Bingham fund. The University of Utah senior class also made a donation toward the Bingham fund, which was published in the Daily Utah Chronicle in May 1961.

Conclusion

The 1961 death of Doug Bingham, a University of Utah student athlete, was recognized as a campus tragedy. Bingham’s death also sparked discourse on how the university ought to respond to the loss of a valued student-athlete. The campus honored the memory and paid tribute to Bingham’s special relationship with the University of Utah by urging students to donate funds to aid the affected family. These tributes and fundraisers also served to solidify Bingham’s dedication and engrave his special standing within the public memory of the University of Utah campus. In present day, there is a growing concern with the well-being of student athletes. Universities can reflect upon the past, to instances like the death of Doug Bingham, to better address injury or death with compassion and a sense of duty to those affected.

Gloria Hammond is a senior at the University of Utah. She is majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism.

Primary Sources

Heart Attack Kills Utah U. Wrestler,” Arizona Republic, February 27, 1961, 41.

Glowing Tribute,Daily Utah Chronicle, February 28, 1961, 2.

Traditions..,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 3, 1961, 2.

Floyd Dyches, “Letter to the Editor,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 6, 1961, 2.

Extravaganza Proceeds Set for Bingham Fund,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 7, 1961, 1.

Senior Class Gift Divided to Benefit University, Campus,” Daily Utah  Chronicle, May 25, 1961, 1.

Secondary Source

McGirt, Michelle. “Do Universities Have a Special Duty of Care to Protect Student-Athletes from Injury?” Sports & Entertainment Law Journal 6, no. 1 (1999): 1-14.

Doug Bingham’s Untimely Death Could Have Shined a Light on Collegiate Sports and the Risk Involved

By Arielle Gulley

U_of_U_Wrestlers_Bingham_Doug_Hankin_Frank_Hess_Marv_Shot_2Collegiate sports are oftentimes regarded as rewarding experiences that can bring communities together and ignite professional careers for some athletes. Being on a team surrounded by your peers can be a great time in your life. Unfortunately, the risk that comes with college athletics is a big one, and even more unfortunate, it often goes unrecognized. That was exactly the case in 1961 when the University of Utah’s wrestling team traveled to Powell, Wyoming, for a meet against the University of Wyoming.

Doug Bingham, a 21-year-old senior at the University of Utah and co-captain of the wrestling team, died during a match due to a heart-related incident while on the mat. This was 1961, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) had just been introduced but was still an unfamiliar practice to many. The Daily Utah Chronicle reported in February 1961 when Bingham went limp during the match that he was given “artificial respiration on the mat, and later a physician opened his chest and massaged his heart.” His teammates watched and even gave blood in attempts of saving his life. Bingham’s heartbeat returned and he was rushed to Memorial Hospital where his heart lost and then regained a beat once more, only to stop later that night one final time. The student, husband, and father of three was pronounced dead.

Page_256_Matmen_win_IntermountainWhen Bingham died so unexpectedly, the school was unaware of the protocol in such a situation. It was a shock that someone so young and healthy could be there one minute, and gone the next. Bingham’s coach Marvin Hess referred to Bingham as someone “in fine health, perfect condition,” as the Arizona Republic reported on February 27, 1961.

Short articles were written of the event and placed in the sports section. Letters to the editor of the Daily Utah Chronicle published in late February and early March 1961 described Bingham as someone who was “highly thought of by all his friends and associates,” and who seemed to “go the extra distance.” A fund was also started at the University of Utah and eventually garnered hundreds of dollars to go toward his surviving family.

After a couple of weeks and time to digest the untimely passing of a young man seemingly in his prime, the school and news outlets found that they had performed their due diligence and found new stories to report on, no longer publishing stories on Doug Bingham or even mentioning the potential risk that collegiate athletics imposed on students. The question of how a young and seemingly healthy college student died from a heart complication was never addressed. Bingham’s circumstance never inspired a new policy where student athletes would be examined prior to competition on the competency of their bodies or their ability to withstand strain. The mental effect of the event on other college athletes and peers at the time was never brought into question. It wasn’t until February 2008, 47 years after the incident, that the athlete on the mat with Bingham at the time of his death shared his own insight on the harrowing situation with Wyoming’s Casper Star-Tribune.

Dave Edington, an awarded wrestler with the University of Wyoming in 1961, recalled wrestling Bingham and the confusion he felt when his opponent went limp and wouldn’t get up during the match. After the death of someone he did not know, Edington was unsure how to feel or if he should feel anything at all. The gravity of the situation affected his collegiate career for the worse. “I never could get it going again,” Edington said about wrestling with the university. “I never was the same.”

As a nation, it is instances such as these that have occurred far too often and taught us that we must shine a light on the untimely deaths and potential risks involved when it comes to college sports. The United States prioritizes sports and athleticism, though in instances such as these it comes at a cost. Someone’s health is overlooked for the chance at winning a trophy. Athletes must be recognized, their peers counseled and taught to properly grieve, and preventative measures taken to reduce future risk.

This wrestling match in 1961 that resulted in a death of a student was given mediocre media attention at best. If better addressed or reported on, this event in our history could have changed policies in collegiate sports and possibly saved or improved the lives of athletes in similar situations. The media’s job is to highlight and distinguish stories in order to bring about much needed change. In this instance, the media failed.

Arielle Gulley is a senior at the University of Utah. She is studying communication with an emphasis in journalism.

Primary Sources

U Athlete Dies in Wyoming,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 27, 1961, 4.

Glowing Tribute…,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 28, 1961, 2.

Drizzle by H20,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 28, 1961, 4.

Traditions,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 3, 1961, 2.

2 Barbershop Quartettes [sic] to Top ‘Extravaganza,’” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 6, 1961, 1.

Feel Bad?” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 6, 1961, 2.

Heart Attack Kills Utah U. Wrestler,” Arizona Republic, February 27, 1961, 41.

David Buck, “Wrestling brought ups and downs for the first four-time champ,” Star-Tribune, February 21, 2008.

“Wrestler dies as Surgery Fails,” San Francisco Chronicle, February 27, 1961, 41.

Secondary Sources

Harmon, Kimberly G., Irfan M. Asif, David A. Klossner, and Jonathan Drezner. “Incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes.” Circulation 123, no. 15 (2011): 1594-600.

Chandra, Navin, Rachel Bastiaenen, Michael Papadakis, and Sanjay Sharma. “Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Athletes.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 61, no. 10 (2013): 1027-040.

“Hyperthermia and Dehydration-Related Deaths Associated with Intentional Rapid Weight Loss in Three Collegiate Wrestlers — North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Michigan, November-December 1997.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 47 (6): 105-108.

Harmon, et al. “Pathogenesis of Sudden Cardiac Death in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes.” Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 7, no. 2 (2014): 198-204.

Van Camp, Steven P., Colin M. Bloor, Frederick O. Mueller, Robert C. Cantu, and Harold G. Olson. “Nontraumatic Sports Death in High School and College Athletes.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 27, no. 5 (1995): 641-47.

 

 

 

Downwinders

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This map shows the hot spots of affected areas from nuclear fallout caused by the bomb tests at the Nevada Test Site. Used by permission, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

By Maddie Colosimo

In the 1950s and 1960s, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) ordered the United States government to conduct nuclear tests in the western states. This resulted in numerous people living around this area getting exposed to nuclear fallout and contracting some form of cancer. These people were later referred to as the Downwinders. At the same time of these tests, the University of Utah received a $3 million grant from the AEC to put toward nuclear research. This article will give a brief history of the AEC, examine the university’s role in the tests, and discuss the legacy of the Downwinders today.

As World War II ended, the United States Government created the Atomic Energy Commission to control nuclear development under President Harry Truman. Aside from aiding in national defense, Congress wanted the AEC to “promote world peace, improve public welfare, and strengthen free competition in private enterprise.” The Atomic Energy Act was then signed by Truman on August 1, 1946. (Buck, p. 1)

On January 6, 1961, the Daily Utah Chronicle wrote a story about the AEC giving Utah universities grant money for nuclear research. This grant was from the Atomic Energy Commission. They awarded the University of Utah, Utah State, and Brigham Young University a total of $4 million over a 10-year period for research in atomic studies. The University of Utah received the largest chunk at $3,552,528.

On February 3, 1961, an article in the Daily Utah Chronicle announced the addition of a new medical center on campus. This housed a research facility from the Atomic Energy Commission which included dog kennels for beagles as their nuclear test subjects. A reporter wrote a story in the same issue of the Chronicle, predicting the 1960s to be a decade of science with the grant from the AEC as well as Time magazine naming 15 prominent scientists its “Men of the Year.”

The Atomic Energy Commission’s generous grant to the University of Utah supported many research projects on campus that led to many amazing advancements in modern science. Unfortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission left a negative impact in the state of Utah with the fallout of their nuclear testing.

The University of Utah’s Marriott Library recently conducted interviews with many of the surviving Downwinders. Justin Sorenson interviewed a man named Joseph Ward Spendlove. Spendlove was born in Delta, Utah, in 1942 and lived there until 1958. Many members of his community began to get cancer around that time which eventually took the life of his mother. Today he is living with prostate cancer while taking care of his brother, who has a degenerative nerve disease. Doctors are unsure if it is related to the nuclear testing. To this day, Spendlove still attends his high school class reunions where the topic of conversation is almost always centered around who has most recently died of cancer.

Ilene Hacker is another living Downwinder. She was raised in St. George, Utah, through the 1960s. Hacker’s father died from pancreatic cancer when he was just 48 years old. She and 13 of her close friends from high school were diagnosed with Hashimoto’s disease. Despite living in the crossfire of nuclear toxicity and being well traveled, Hacker still feels that she is living in the greatest place on earth. With that, she also feels a total distrust of the government.

The nuclear tests done in the western US have had a tremendous impact on the people who inhabit the region. By the firsthand accounts of modern Downwinders, we see this is an issue that persists even today. Ilene Hacker’s distrust in the government is not unwarranted and even members of Congress agree. The fact that so many people died because of nearby nuclear testing provoked a bill in the 1990s by Utah Senator Orrin Hatch to give compensation to these victims. There has been a recent movement to expand the compensation to victims throughout all of Utah, as well as neighboring states like Idaho and Montana and even Guam. For all of those heavily affected, compensation would range from $50,000-$150,000 — which, as the leader of this movement Preston Truman explains — would not even cover the cost of one chemotherapy treatment.

Maddie Colosimo is a senior at the University of Utah and is majoring in communication with an emphasis in strategic communication and minoring in art history.

Primary Sources

AEC Grants For Utah’s Universities Applied in Research,” Daily Utah Chronicle, January 6, 1961, 1.

Important— But…” Daily Utah Chronicle, January 6, 1961, 1.

Law, Business, Medicine Are Building Projects,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 3, 1961, 9.

Dr. Libby Talks Tonight in Spencer Hall,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 2, 1961, 1.

Ute Briefs: Atomic Energy,” Daily Utah Chronicle, December 12, 1961, 4.

Atomic Exhibit Due In Salt Lake,” Daily Utah Chronicle, September 2, 1960, 4.

Spendlove, Joseph Ward, et. al. “Interview with Joseph Ward Spendlove, Downwinders of Utah Archive.” Transcript of an oral history conducted on June 25, 2019, by Justin Sorensen and Anthony Sams, Everett L. Cooley Oral History Project, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Hacker, Ilene, et. al. “Interview with Ilene Hacker, Downwinders of Utah Archive.” Transcript of an oral history conducted on June 12, 2017, by Justin Sorensen. Everett L. Cooley Oral History Project, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Secondary Sources

Buck, Alice. “The Atomic Energy Commission.” Washington, D.C.: US Department of Energy, 1983

Davidson, Lee. “Utahns who say family members died from cancer because of radioactive fallout would be eligible for $150K under new bill,” Salt Lake Tribune, July 6, 2018.

JCordes, “Scientific Discoveries of the 1960s.”

Utah Department of Environmental Quality, “Impact of Aboveground Nuclear Tests on Southern Utah,” September 11, 2019.

The History of Cadet Nurses and Their Struggle for Veterans Rights

By Catherine Simmons

In the years leading up to WWll, jobs were in short supply. However, once America entered the war, that all changed. Because so many men signed up, employees of every kind were desperately needed. Nurses were perhaps needed most.

cadet1

University of Utah–Cadet Nurses War Vets. Salt Lake Tribune Negative Collection, Utah State History.

In 1943, Frances Bolton introduced a bill to create a governmental program to recruit and train nurses. (“Short History”) It passed just a few months later. This led to a countrywide mass recruitment, particularly in universities. The University of Utah formed a club for all Cadet Nurses and even practiced drill with other ASTP, or Army Specialized Training Program, students. They often got in uniform and stood in formations and even ran practice exercises. (Cutler) There were numerous advertisements calling women to join the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps, similar to the advertisements calling men to join the service. At one point, 80 percent of nurses in the United States were part of the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps. (“Short History”)

cadet2

St. Marks Hospital Cadet Nurses. Salt Lake Tribune Negative Collection, Utah State History.

Their 30-month training was rigorous and demanding. There was a lot of school work as well as training, not to mention the strict curfews. (Bergman) But they all said they felt an obligation to help the young men and their country.

One nurse, Eunice E. Smolak, was assigned to Bushnell General Hospital where she treated wounded servicemen and prisoners of war. She wrote about how difficult it was, emotionally and physically, to care for those wounded soldiers, and that she would never forget those experiences. (“We Remember”) Each nurse was greatly affected by what she saw and heard in those hospitals. It was not an easy job. It was physically, emotionally and psychologically demanding. However, despite the hardship each cadet nurse faced, they were not considered veterans.

Numerous pleas have been submitted asking to change the status of cadet nurses to eligible veterans. A wave of activism has swept across the country. Former cadet nurses are sending letters and calling all their cadet friends and acquaintances, letting everyone know what they are trying to achieve. Letters were sent out begging for signatures on their petition. Cadet nurses and their families have sent letters to the editor in newspapers all over the country, including the Columbia (MO) Daily Tribune, asking for recognition of their efforts and sacrifice. The U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps is, in fact, the only uniformed force that has not received veterans status. That means they do not qualify for any of those benefits and services. (Karins)

On February 6, 2017, H.R. 1168, the United States Cadet Nurse Corps Equity Act, was introduced to Congress. It states that any member of the United States Nurse Corps who served between July 1, 1943, and December 31, 1948, is qualified to full veteran status, including all benefits, although those benefits won’t be back-paid. (Lowey) Seventeen representatives cosponsored the bill. However, despite all the effort put in by so many, nothing has come of it. Almost two years later and it has still not passed in the House of Representatives.

Thousands of women sacrificed so much of their time and energy, just doing their duty to their country and their fellow Americans and the least we can do is give them what they are owed. If we wait much longer, there will be no nurses left to recognize.

Catherine Simmons is a Utah resident who has a degree in communication from the University of Utah. She is married with a beautiful puppy.  She loves history and reading and dreams of becoming an author. 

Sources

Robert Cutler, “Campus in Crisis,” Utah Chronicle, November 4, 1943.

Belcher, David. “Cadet Corps Seeks Congressional Recognition: World War II Nurses Petition Congress for Veterans’ Benefits, Honors,” American Journal of Nursing 103, no. 3 (2005): 130-31.

Doona, Mary Ellen. “Cadet Nurse Corps,” Massachusetts Report on Nursing 11, no. 1 (March 2013): 6.

Karins, Jessica. “U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps members seek veteran status,” Columbia Daily Tribune, August 20, 2018.

Bergman, Julia. “All but forgotten: Cadet nurses reflect on service during WWII,” The Day, November 3, 2018.

Rep. Nita Lowey, H.R. 1168, United States Cadet Nurse Corps Equity Act.

Alissa Sauer, “Overdue Recognitions for WWII Cadet Nurse Corps,” Veteran Aid, April 3, 2018

Short History of Military Nursing: U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps,” Ebling Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison, August 18, 2017.

“We Remember: Eunice E. Smolak,” USCadetNurse.org.

The Role of Cigarettes in 1940s University of Utah Campus Culture

By Emerson Oligschlaeger

In January 1943, Utah Chronicle columnist Bette Pomerance penned an op-ed titled “Scribe Finds Weed Vices Common at the U.” Pomerance neither condemns nor defends the prominence of cigarette smoking on campus; her point is limited to chronicling students’ commitment to the vice. When contextualized against local and national historical resources, Pomerance’s column allows us to understand tobacco’s cultural role in the university community of the 1940s.

The article mentions “restricted areas” — campus venues where smoking is banned — and students’ “flagrant violations of the ‘no fagging’ rule.” Pomerance cheekily notes students’ unflagging devotion to tobacco, writing that offenders chastised for smoking in restricted areas “swear… to never do it again — and get caught.”

University_of_Utah_College_Inn_Shot_1

The College Inn in 1937. Used with permission of the Utah State Historical Society.

Pomerance also records a few epicenters of campus tobacco culture, including the university game room and the College Inn, an off-campus restaurant that once stood on 200 S. and University Street. “One could hardly write an article on smoking without mentioning the College Inn,” she writes, calling it “the best place to obtain a non-average report card, tubercular lungs and stomach ulcers.”

In the Summer 1997 issue of Continuum, the University of Utah’s official magazine, alumnus Rod Decker recalls visiting the College Inn as a 10-year-old to find it full of college students smoking cigarettes and “fleeing supervised wholesomeness.” The non-smokers tended to eat in the Union cafeteria where smoking was prohibited, Decker writes, while tobacco users congregated at the campus-adjacent eatery.

women

Ellis Gangl Leonard poses in her husband Leo Leonard’s military cap while an unidentified woman smokes a cigarette. Both soldiers and women contributed to the prevalence of tobacco on campus in the 1940s. Used with permission of Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Decker and Pomerance’s recollections reflect national trends in tobacco usage. The early 1940s saw one of America’s sharpest spikes in per capita tobacco consumption, and more women took up smoking during the ’40s than any other decade. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014) Pomerance’s column notes the prevalence of smoking among university co-eds, writing of “the entire male population and half the female with a weed in his or her face.”

The presence of servicemen also contributed to the clouds of smoke on campus. Tobacco played a significant role in military culture. A July 1943 article from the Davis County Clipper titled “Smokes and the Soldier” detailed the ways that cigarettes “play a prominent part in many phases of the life of a soldier.” A January 1943 issue of the Vernal Express includes a write-up on care packages assembled by the local Red Cross chapter, which necessarily featured cigarettes. As rationalized by The New York Times during World War I, “tobacco may not be a necessary of life, in the ordinary sense of that term, but it certainly lightens the inevitable hardships of war as nothing else can do.” (Brandt, p. 52).

A letter to the editor published in a February 1943 edition of the Chronicle directly addresses the issue of servicemen smoking on campus. In response to complaints about soldiers smoking in buildings and areas where it is prohibited, the writer acknowledges that servicemen should follow the rules, but takes issue with critics’ tone.

“This note, then, is directed not to the validity or invalidity of the ‘no-smoking’ rule, but to one who, in times of war and stress, when the very life of our country hangs in the balance concerns himself with trivial things like smoking in school buildings. Let me say that we service men are concerned with affairs far more momentous,” he writes.

Another letter to the editors of the Chronicle chastised students for failing to properly dispose of their cigarettes, creating fire hazards and cluttering campus. “Just a little effort on the part of each of you can make our campus something to be remembered by the numerous visitors who come here,” wrote Marian R. Jones in 1949.

A 1941 Utah Chronicle article by Frank Allen, “Scribe Gets Hot Under Collar Over Paper’s Cigarette Ad Problem,” addresses an ongoing debate over the absence of tobacco advertising in the student paper. According to Allen, the Chronicle printed a number of letters to the editor alternately praising and decrying the paper’s decision not to advertise cigarettes. Throughout the 1940s – and indeed, to this day – the Chronicle remains an important venue for discussion of student smoking practices.

Tobacco use, on college campuses and elsewhere, has steadily decreased since the 1960s. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014) In 2018, the University of Utah declared itself a smoke-free campus, sparking another wave of Chronicle op-eds. The first sentence of Pomerance’s 1943 column  —  “each year about this time someone starts a debate about the use of nicotine on our campus” — still rings true. While university nicotine culture has changed dramatically, some things never do.

Emerson Oligschlaeger graduated from the University of Utah in 2018 with a degree in mass communication. Emerson currently works for KSL NewsRadio and plans to pursue a career in community journalism.

 Sources

Frank Allen, “Scribe Gets Hot Under Collar over Paper’s Cigarette Ad Problem,” The Utah Chronicle, February 6, 1941, 4.

Bette Pomerance, “Pomerance Says: Scribe Finds Weed Vices Common at U,” The Utah Chronicle, January 21, 1943, 2.

“Local Red Cross to Make 275 Comfort Kits,” Vernal Express, January 28, 1943, 1.

 S/Sgt. OES., “Upholds Soldiers,” The Utah Chronicle, February 11, 1943, 2.

“Smokes and the Soldier,” Davis County Clipper, July 23, 1943, 6.

Marian R. Jones, “Battered Campus, Untidy Lawns Cause Greater Tuition Costs,” The Utah Chronicle, October 12, 1949, 2.

Brandt, Allan. The Cigarette Century: The Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product that Defined America. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2007.

Rod Decker, “Campus Hangouts Throughout the Years: A Cautionary Tale” Continuum,(Summer 1997): 24.

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US) Office on Smoking and Health. “The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General.” Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), 2014, Chapter 13, Patterns of Tobacco Use Among U.S. Youth, Young Adults, and Adults.