Greek Life Evaluation Study at the University of Utah, 1962

By Brianna Winn

From networking to academics to philanthropy, Greek life has been and still is a huge part of the collegiate experience. Fraternities and sororities today and in the past, have been seen in both a positive and negative light since the implementation of the organizations into the University of Utah.

Utah’s fraternity and sorority life began in the fall of 1909 when the first fraternity was chartered and established. The first sorority on campus was founded in 1913. According to the University of Utah’s official Greek life website, today, the University of Utah has 18 fraternities and sororities with over 1,600 students involved.

The Fraternity Study Committee was appointed in November 1960 by President Albert Ray Olpin to conduct a comprehensive study of the fraternities and sororities on campus. According to the Committee, President Olpin had three main objectives with this study: “to discover and describe as objectively as possible, the past and present characteristics of fraternities and sororities, to project their future role on campus, and to identify ways and means by which fraternities and sororities can meet their goals within the framework of the University education objectives.” (Report to Dr. A. Ray Olpin, p. 3) This study was proposed to assist in the long-range planning for Greek life on campus.

Just like today, a good deal of attention, both positive and negative, was focused on fraternities and sororities across the nation. “Fraternity and sorority organizations have found themselves in conflict with some university administrations to the point that the individual chapters had left several campuses.” (Report to Dr. A. Ray Olpin, p. 3) The Committee that was appointed by President Olpin consisted of representatives from the Regents, administration, faculty, students, and alumni.

The Daily Utah Chronicle reported on October 10, 1962, that this study was one of the most complete studies of its kind to be undertaken by a university. The 98-page report was compiled over for a year and a half by the Committee.

The first meetings of the alumni dealt with defining the scope of the research program and outlining the different sources of information that would be needed to meet the objectives of the study. “Following the collection of data from students, faculty, alumni, parents, and school records, the Committee has considered the material and used the information as a basis for making recommendations.” (Report to Dr. A. Ray Olpin, President, p. 4)

On October 3, 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle article announced that the University had just completed a study of the fraternity and sorority systems on campus. The Committee had released the results of the study. The Daily Utah Chronicle reported that most of the Greek houses were originally constructed as private homes and later converted to fraternity and sorority dwellings. This caused problems such as congestion, inadequate facilities, limited parking, and strained relationships with private citizens living in the area.

The Daily Utah Chronicle reported on October 10, 1962, that the factors of importance in this study were issues such as, the rapid enrollment growth of the school with an increase in out-of-state and married students and the development of a strong residence hall program. Also, the article reported other issues such as, the construction of the Union facilities to meet students’ out-of-classroom needs, the inadequacies of housing for fraternities and sororities and the need for the development of understanding between the University community about the ways in which fraternities and sororities could contribute to the educational objectives of the University.

The data in this study were collected through interviews, surveys, use of school records, and involved both affiliated and non-affiliated students, faculty, parents, and alumni.

The Daily Utah Chronicle reported October 10, 1962, that as the final feature of the study, the committee made some recommendations. Thus, based on the belief that the fraternities and sororities at the University of Utah are an important part of the University community, and they make substantial contributions to the educational experiences of students.

This study found, that the membership in fraternities and sororities has remained relatively constant in the last seven years as have the number of those who have gone through fall rush. Also, there are three fraternities and three sororities that limit their membership based on a belief in the Christian religion. The majority of faculty, students, parents, and alumni felt that more information about sororities and fraternities is needed by incoming students if they are asked to join the organization. Regarding housing, if future building and construction are to take place, the University support will be needed to achieve the necessary changes. Lastly, although all national organizations have specifically outlawed any type of hazing, there is some evidence that pre-initiation activities remain a problem in some fraternities. However, progress is being made in this area and hazing activities have become less severe in recent years. (Report to Dr. A. Ray Olpin, pp. 42-45)

The Greek organizations continue to grow across the United States because of their strong national organizations that give financial, housing, membership selection advise, assistant and support. The Chronicle reports April 28, 1970, that the Greeks have given more of their time, energy, and means than any other group to make the University of Utah what it is and to help make many programs successful.

In an article published on April 4, 1970, The Daily Utah Chronicle said through a unique combination of unity in its ranks and diversity in its membership, the Greek system will continue its vital contribution to University life.

Greek organizations are and have been important to colleges all around the nation. Although they must be monitored and frequently observed, they provide students with a plethora of networking, scholarship, academic, and social opportunities.

Brianna Winn is a junior at the University of Utah. She is currently pursuing a degree in communication with an emphasis in journalism.

Primary Sources

“Housing, Scholarship, Finances Studied,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 2, 1962, 2.

“Greek Study Complete; Committee Reports,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 10, 1962, 2.

“Recommendations Made by Greek Study Forum,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 3, 1962, 2.

“Recommendations Seek Control,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 4, 1962, 2.

“What have the Greeks Done for U?” The Daily Utah Chronicle, April 28, 1970, 2.

Cynthia J. Wootton, “Greeks: Progress or Perish,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, April 30, 1970, 5.

Secondary Source

Fraternity Study Committee, University of Utah. Report to Dr. A. Ray Olpin, President, University of Utah. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah, 1962.


Bill McGill: The Jump Hook that Never Was

By Paul S. Toala


Bill McGill was named All-American as a junior at The University of Utah. Used by permission, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriot Library, The University of Utah.

“With the first pick in the 1962 NBA Draft, the Chicago Zephyrs select, Bill McGill, center, from the University of Utah” and the crowd went wild! Confetti and the celebratory aroma of champagne stain the air as lifelong dreams and hundreds of hours in the gym are realized in mere seconds. The 6-foot 9-inch African American center who hailed from Los Angeles, California. According to the Salt Lake Tribune, McGill was once known as “one of the greatest of all time”. Spectators would gawk in awe as McGill would display his now world-renowned jump hook shot, that would both dazzle opponents as well as National Basketball League team owners. To many in society, receiving a free education due to an athletic scholarship and becoming an instant celebrity after being drafted to the NBA are accolades to truly celebrate over and one would assume that with his athletic frame, such accomplishments would come easily but, that was not the case. McGill faced many challenges both during and after his basketball career; these challenges included systemic racism, crippling depression as well as financial instability.

McGill would go on to have an outstanding career at the University of Utah basketball team. In his three-year stint with the team, He was able to become the school all-time leader in rebounding and second as the all-time scorer with 2,321 points according to Sports Reference. Most players today are not able to obtain that many points if they were to stay for the full four years at a university. McGill’s college stats are impressive but are much different than draft prospects of today as the rules to allow freshmen in college to enter into the draft has made it so that players don’t have 3 to 4-year college careers anymore. McGill was the first black player for the University as well as its first black All-American.


McGill displays athletic ability in a photoshoot for the Salt Lake Trbune. Used by permission, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

In 1962, Bill McGill was selected as one of the top players in the region and joined the U.S. basketball team to compete at the world basketball championship according to The Chronicle. His college career boasted stats that have not been matched to this day and was the reason as to why he was nominated into the region’s hall of fame. Hidden behind the fame, stats, and accomplishments on the court were what McGill described as pressure to live up to expectations while being ridiculed and stared at, as recorded on his biography “The Hill and the Jump Hook”. The burden of being the first African American player at The University of Utah and the racism and bigotry that followed was not able to derail McGill from highest scoring center in NCAA history.

Circumstances and values have changed and are vastly different now from what they were in the 1960s. Racism and discrimination towards people of color was as regular as going to church on Sunday mornings in Utah. Racism and discrimination did not make any exceptions, especially for the up and coming basketball superstar at The University of Utah. From his collegiate career on “The Hill” to his days in the NBA and ultimately to his days on the streets without a home, the life of the one they called “Bill the Hill” was something to be admired.

After his groundbreaking career at The University of Utah, Bill McGill was drafted first overall to the Chicago Zephyr’s but was halted for a moment by ongoing knee problems that occurred in both high school and college according to McGill’s bibliography. While in the NBA, McGill would find himself in the position that he was unfamiliar with; McGill bounced around from team to team in the NBA which caused the young man to begin to feel out of place. In a documentary of McGill’s life called “How Top NBA Draft Pick Ended Up Homeless” by BCC, he was quoted saying that he felt depression and anxiety due to the fact that he was unfamiliar with how to handle both the national fame as well as money management. These feelings of anxiety and depression, crippled McGill and ultimately led him to his next chapter of life.

That next chapter of life for McGill was unfortunately filled with drug abuse, alcohol, and homelessness. He blamed his off the court issues on several things but the two things that McGill noted that were the most impactful were: 1. Never finishing his degree while in college. 2. His inexperience with financial and real-world life after his NBA career according to LA Times.  He was forced to live on the streets of his hometown Los Angeles and had to bathe in local laundromats and sleep at bus stops. Before his death in 2014, he encouraged young college athletes to both learn more about life after sports as well as pioneer the beginnings of research on athletes and depression.

Bill McGill was an accomplished athlete. The stats and all of the accolades are ones that can hardly be replicated nor beaten. All-American status, NBA #1 overall draft pick and instant celebrity are titles that are now associated with McGill. Unfortunately, titles such as homeless and “NBA bust” are also infused with his legacy. A promising career that never blossomed into what it could’ve been were replaced with feelings of inadequacy and self-doubt as he walked the streets of his hometown as one without a home. He would not let this be the end of his story as McGill was able to find help and finish his life the only way he knew how, with a jump hook.

Paul Solomua Toala was a senior at the University of Utah. He was a member of the football team and majored in communication studies and minored in Spanish.

 Primary Sources

“McGill, Green on World Roster,” Daily Utah Chronicle, April 3, 1962.

Billy McGill,”

#40, Bill McGill,” NBA Stats.

“Utah basketball: Utes pioneer Bill McGill dies at 74,” The Salt Lake Tribune, July 12, 2014, 1.

“Billy McGill has difficult time with life after basketball,” Los Angeles Times, February 20, 2011.

Kenny Brown and Regan Morris, “Billy McGill: How top NBA draft pick ended up homeless,” BBC, January 16, 2014.

Billy McGill and Eric Brach, Billy “the Hill” And the Jump Hook: The Autobiography of a Forgotten Basketball Legend (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2013).

Secondary Source

Speckman, Stephen. “A Book for Life,” Continuum, Spring 2014.








Tuition Increases and Fee Hikes at the University of Utah, 1962-1964

By Hunter Thornburg


Aerial view of the ever-growing University of Utah campus in 1960. Captioned “Tomorrow’s Campus From West” in the lower right hand corner. Public domain image, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

It’s no secret that the cost of tuition has been climbing at the University of Utah, usually on an annual basis, voted upon by the Utah State Board of Regents. According to the Utah System of Higher Education website, the Board of Regents is a governing body made up of 17 citizens, appointed by the governor, who control the Utah System of Higher Education.

On November 19, 2007, Community College Week published an article that explained the process by which the Board of Regents decides upon future tuition rates. The final tuition increase is reached by combining first-tier and second-tier tuition rates. First-tier tuition rates are established directly by the Board of Regents, and those rates mainly affect employee compensation, depending on the education budget approved by the Utah State Legislature.

Second-tier rates are organized by Utah’s colleges themselves with the intent to cover all of the institution’s individual costs, if approved by the Board of Regents. When those rates are combined and the final increase is produced, colleges can expect to increase some aspects of tuition by up to 5.4 percent.

One of the more thoroughly covered tuition increases in Utah history took place in 1962. The University of Utah was considering beginning the construction of the Marriott Library, a project that had not been included in the annual budget. The Utes’ athletic department was also deemed somewhat under-funded.

The March 26, 1962, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle contained an article by the Editor-in-Chief, Meg Rampton, regarding the approval of the fee hike. At the time of the approval, no specific uses for the funds were identified. The ASUU Executive Council held no objections toward the increase as long as the funds were used for “maintaining and improving high-quality academic standards.” The council assumed students would be comfortable paying higher fees if they were for that purpose. The fee hike was expected to add $500,000  to the University of Utah budget, and the ASUU Executive Council brought student opinion as far as what the funds should be used for to President A. Ray Olpin’s attention.


President A. Ray Olpin, president of the University of Utah from 1946 to 1964. Olpin led the university during a period of substantial development and evolution. Public domain image, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

According to the article titled “Where Is It Going?” in the March 26, 1962, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle, many opinions were voiced as the U prepared to add half a million dollars to the budget. Many students felt as though the athletic program deserved a new fieldhouse, with new locker rooms, training facilities, and equipment storage. The faculty hoped to see a new library, and student government wanted to see improvements to the University of Utah faculty and classrooms. President Olpin wished to pick an option that would benefit the most students. The university had an obligation to use student funds for the improvement of the academic experience, and to let the students know how the funds were being used.

Months after the approval of the hike, in the June 1, 1962, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle, those responsible for delegating the funds came to a decision. Despite improvements to campus buildings in the past, and the construction of many vital facilities like the Campus Bookstore, Student Health Center, and Music Hall, the University of Utah still struggled in two specific areas, classrooms and faculty. Students attended classes in buildings that had been neglected, in overflowing classrooms. Professors at the university often recognized these low-quality facilities and accepted positions at other universities, making it very difficult to increase the size and quality of the staff. The money from the 1962 tuition hike went directly into the improvement of academic facilities and faculty members.

According to the April 28, 1964, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle, the Board of Regents attempted to build on this tuition hike, but could not agree on a new tuition rate. The board did not want to discourage potential Utes from attending the school because of excessive tuition, and instead increased parking fees and delegated the money toward further campus improvement. In addition to the campus improvement, the board began making room in the budget for the eventual construction of the Marriott Library.

It is important that students are aware of how their money is being used at the university and it is no secret that tuition has increased significantly since 1962. In fact, in March of 2019, the Board of Regents approved a 3.2 percent tuition increase at the University of Utah. These funds will go toward student services, safety programs, and raises for state-financed employees.

Hunter Thornburg is a sophomore at the University of Utah. He is studying communication with an emphasis in journalism, hoping to become a sports journalist.

Primary Sources

“Fee Hike? Only If Needed, Olpin Says,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 15, 1962, 3.

Meg Rampton, “Regents Hike Student Fees,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 26, 1962, 1.

“Where Is It Going?” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 26, 1962, 2.

“West Outlines Reasons For Support of Fee Hike,” Daily Utah Chronicle, June 1, 1962, 4.

Gene Townsend, “Development Director Gives Support To Tuition Increase,” Daily Utah Chronicle, April 9, 1964, 1.

“Parking Costs Jump, Tuition Hike Fails In Regents Confab,” Daily Utah Chronicle, April 28,1964, 1.

“Regents Approval Means Utah Tuition Is Headed Upward,” Community College Week, November 19, 2007, 14.

Secondary Sources

Purser, Annalisa. “Truth in Tuition,” @theU, March 18, 2019.

Hernandez, Rocio. “University Of Utah Proposes Tuition Increase To Pay For More Staff, Student Services,” KUER, March 19, 2019.

About the Board,” Utah System of Higher Education.


‘Woman Power — Our Great Resource for Progress’ Lecture by Esther Peterson on the University of Utah Campus

By Casey Stevenson


A portrait of Esther Peterson, assistant secretary of labor, taken by a Salt Lake Tribune photographer for a March 1962 issue of the newspaper.

Esther Peterson, a former Utah resident, who made so many significant contributions on behalf of workers, consumers and women in so many diverse areas, including government, civic and business. Peterson was a forceful lobbyist and had been the assistant secretary of labor under President Kennedy. She came to The University of Utah to give a lecture that took place on March 1, 1962, it was titled, “Women Power – Our Great Resource for Progress.” Peterson wrote in her article, “Change and Challenge to Women in Education, “my concern lies with the new needs of students, particularly girls and young women, whose problems are far different from those of their mothers’ generation,” which greatly correlates with her topic for her University of Utah lecture. She was interested in what the people had to say, and any chance she got to get insight on pending proposals she took advantage of. With these traits Peterson had, nobody was surprised when she titled her autobiography Restless.

The Daily Utah Chronicle reported on February 27, 1962, that the talk would be held in the Orson Spencer Hall auditorium, under the auspices of the University faculty women. Her position as the assistant secretary of labor and director of the U.S. Women’s Bureau was mentioned as well as her position as the assistant director of education. The former Utah resident was also was an advisor to the United States delegation at the International Labor Organization Conference in Geneva, Switzerland.

On February 28, 1962, the Daily Utah Chronicle wrote about Peterson’s devotion to the labor movement and education, and after 12 years of teaching was appointed director of education for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Formerly she was the legislative representative of the Industrial Union Department of AFL-CIO. She was involved in other abroad experiences including serving in Sweden to study labor market policy and labor management relations.

It was reported by the Daily Utah Chronicle, on March 1, 1962, that Peterson would be presenting that night on campus. It was explained that after her 12-year teaching career, she had several posts with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America from 1939 to 1948. She had been accompanied while abroad by her husband who was a foreign service officer. Oliver A. Peterson was also a labor advisor in the State Department’s Bureau of African Affairs.


A photo of Esther Peterson and colleagues, taken by a Salt Lake Tribune photographer for a September 1961 issue of the newspaper.

Again, on March 1, 1962, the day of Peterson’s visit to the University of Utah, the Daily Utah Chronicle wrote another article about Peterson and her position. They reported that her visit is taking place just three weeks after President Kennedy’s first meeting about the newly established Commission on the Status of Women. Peterson’s concern is with women, college women in particular. She was being brought to the University as an example of someone who is a successful wife and mother but who is also quite the intellectual and contribution to society. She is being placed as an example for young women to strive to have an intellectual and meaningful life after she is done having children. The chronicle wrote that average women’s life expectancy after her youngest child is grown, was only 30 years. After their child is grown women are left wondering if she is even useful anymore. Peterson’s example was being portrayed as one to follow for young college women of her time.

The day following Peterson’s visit, March 2, 1962, the Daily Utah Chronicle wrote an article about the event. Peterson emphasized that, “our great resource for progress in womanpower.” She’s trying to explain that college is a huge investment and that she doesn’t want to see women’s usefulness be wasted after they receive their cap and gown. Her lecture was given to a select audience of civic and educational leaders of the state.

An article in the Davis County Clipper, written on January 24, 1964 explains that as Peterson was already one of the most well-known women in Washington, she would soon be the best-known woman throughout the entire nation. She was also the highest government office of her gender at the time and is only getting more popular. She held three major positions one including the position that was previously held by the late Eleanor Roosevelt, executive vice chairman of the President’s Commission on the Status of Women. At the time of the article, Peterson had just been assigned by President Kennedy to ensure that the consumers voices are heard and effective in the highest council of the federal government.

Esther Peterson was a successful director of education, assistant secretary of labor, director of the U.S. Women’s Bureau, legislative representative of the Industrial Union Department, just to name a few of her accomplishments and her undeniable personality and care for the people had a huge impact on the people around the country. Her message speaks loud and clear, don’t take your education lightly, it is an investment so don’t waste it. Use this privilege we have to an education and make a difference in the lives of the people around you. Make sure your usefulness doesn’t run out.

Casey Stevenson is a sophomore at The University of Utah. She is majoring in strategic communication.

Primary Sources

Labor Official Sets Talk on ‘Woman Power,’” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 26, 1962, 1.

Woman-Power Topics Labor Official’s Talk,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 28, 1962, 1.

Former Utahn Readies ‘Power’ Talk,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 1, 1962, 1.

Climate Of Unexpectation…,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 1, 1962, 2.

Jan Peterson, “Womanpower: Resource For Future Progress,” Daily Utah Chronicle, March 2, 1962, 1.

Bert Mills, “Esther Peterson Becomes Well Known,” Davis County Clipper, January 24, 1964, 6.

Secondary Source

Peterson, Esther. “Change and Challenge to Women in Education.” Educational Horizon 42, no. 2 (Winter 1963): 52-59


The Importance of Federal Funding for Education: Dean Jack H. Adamson Advocates for Students at the University of Utah in 1962

By Michelle Saucedo

Education is an important factor in how individuals pursue and achieve their academical goals. It is also significant as it contributes and creates a path for students to succeed. However, education at a higher level, specifically college, is not affordable by a majority of people in the United States. College education can be broad, offering degrees from arts, engineering, and language to many other areas. It is a community and space where students understand their academic purpose. Although education is accessible, it is only obtainable through tuition payments, which cover fees and courses. Having the desire to pursue an academic goal through attending classes, covering other expenses such as school fees, books and supplies is highly important as well. As these create and ensure that students obtain and have a successful educational experience.


Dean Jack H. Adamson, pictured in a January 1962 issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle, was a guest speaker during the Greek Lyceum fair.

To this day, however students struggle to finance their education careers. In fact, a majority of students enroll in a university or college through financial aid, scholarships, private loans and at times with personal life savings. Federal funding programs such as financial aid, offer scholarships, Pell grants, and loans to students who struggle to pay tuition rates from their first year of school to their graduation expected date. This funding is available for students after they complete and process an application that requires a background check in their yearly income, filling out family information and submitting official documents. Students who then qualify are able to afford and pay for tuition each year through the available funds that the program offers for each individual. Numerous universities all over the United States also provide scholarships for incoming and enrolled students. However, not all students with an ambition of pursuing a college degree can afford tuition or qualify for local, school or private scholarships.

In 1962, through the Greek Lyceum fair on campus at the University of Utah, the idea of increased role of the federal aid in colleges was presented by Dr. Jack Adamson. As the Dean of the College of Letters and Science, Dr. Adamson, discussed with students at the time about the significance of funding programs focused on science, engineering and technology. Particularly, after Sputnik in 1957. The Sputnik Satellite was created by the Soviet Union, and it demonstrated that the Soviet Union was highly in advantage through its technology programs and innovations, in contrast to the United States. Creating a concern on how the United States was focusing federal funding, specifically for education purposes. Through this discussion at the University of Utah, Adamson created awareness and students were able to understand how important it was having fund directed to science, engineering, and technology. If funding was not being granted to programs in colleges, how was the United States going to advance and make progress technologically in the world? In other words, Dean Adamson highlighted the necessity of universities to obtain federal funding to budget research, teaching, and federal aid for students.

The Daily Utah Chronicle reported in January 1962 that Dean Adamson, emphasized the importance of having “a balance between science and humanities and between teaching and research.” Through this lecture, Dean Adamson provided an understanding of the United States’ educational and technological developments, however this lecture presented the idea that the United States was becoming a less potential power in technology compared to the Soviet Union. As federal funding was not being focused towards technology and science in Universities. Students, then understood that federal funding was necessary to improve programs and allow other individuals to attend and enroll in university and pursue degrees in engineering, science, and technology.


Article published in an October 1957 issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle.

The conversation introduced the technological development of the Soviet Union, the Sputnik Satellite from 1957. This topic was mentioned all over the United States, as it was one of the examples and advancements that presented the concerns and lack of budget to education. Alvin Powell published an article in the Harvard Gazette, on October 11, 2007 regarding the Sputnik Satellite and its importance to the educational path of the United States. “The United States may be overdue for a science education overhaul,” wrote Alvin. (p. 1) The Sputnik satellite was a technological advancement that demonstrated the development and importance the Soviet Union had towards technology in comparison with the United States in 1957. In this case, it was then given that the United States had to enact and work on a type of reform to fund educational research regarding science and engineering if it wanted to continue as a world potential power. And in response to the problematic educational crisis, the United States enacted the National Defense Education Act in 1958, which according to Powell, “increased funding for education at all levels, including low-interest student loans to college students, with the focus on scientific and technical education.” (p. 1)

As the conversation towards education increased with the controversy of the Soviet Union being the superior power in technological advancements, it was then noted that the funding for educational research and tuition was lacking. The University of Utah, during the Greek Lyceum lecture of Dean Adamson, presented findings according to the budget in 1962. Charlotte Garff, editor of the Daily Utah Chronicle in 1962 from Adamson’s lecture, wrote that “79 percent of the total U.S. budget is allotted for defense.” in an article published in February 1962. This amount and data presented in the lecture introduced the real budgeting the United States had towards other federal government programs comparing to education. Garff also presented how Dean Adamson emphasized that if the United States wanted to survive as the best potential power through the war crisis, it required the best programs and research or “the group with the best trained intelligence will win the cold war.”

Although education has been considered important to achieve success, it became a highly important factor for the United States to work on developing a technological era back in 1957. This movement, aside of budgeting programs focused on science, technology and engineering, opened new doors to other degrees as it introduced the federal funding programs towards education. The Soviet Union challenged the moral values and resources the United States had focused on research, and it created a breakthrough for future research, universities and education as a whole. The United States acquired the initiative and funded more educational programs over the nation. Discussions such as Dean Adamson’s lecture at the University of Utah, advocated and informed students and colleges on how valuable it was to have federal aid towards programs and student tuition. Federal funding has been providing a path to education for students for all majors and interests. Which creates opportunities for students to enroll and attend school and invest their educational careers in developing the technological future of the nation.

Michelle Saucedo is a senior at The University of Utah. She is majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism and minoring in Spanish.

Primary Sources

Bob Grondel, “Sputnik Spins on Through Space,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 10, 1957, 1.

Adamson To Initiate Greek Lyceum Fare,” Daily Utah Chronicle, January 31, 1962, 1.  

Charlotte Garff, “Aid Here to Stay, Dean Claims,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 2, 1962, 1.

Ernest Ford, “Adamson Urges Program To Better Use Students,” Daily Utah Chronicle, February 16, 1962, 1.

Lecture Series Begins Tuesday,Daily Utah Chronicle, June 27, 1963, 1.

Secondary Source

Powell, Alvin. “How Sputnik Changed U.S. Education.” The Harvard Gazette, October 11, 2007.

Debate Continues Over the Use of Ute Mascot

By Jacob Rueda

The term “Ute” has become synonymous with the University of Utah. Names such as “Utes,” “redskins,” and “redskin braves” have been associated with the university sports teams in some manner or another. Most of those names have been dropped except for “Ute,” a name that is almost always associated with football.

In reality, the actual Utes are barely recognized by students and fans of the university’s sports teams alike. The tribe itself struggles to find acknowledgement in a world that cares more about use than consequence.

The University of Utah was established in 1850. It started using the Ute identity beginning in the 1920s, according to Utes Nickname Project website. The school received permission to use the “Ute” identity from one of the three recognized Ute Tribes, the Northern Ute Nation.

The other two nations, the Southern Ute and the Ute Mountain Tribes, did not grant permission to the school to use their name.

The Ute tribe has inhabited the area for over ten thousand years. The university has made efforts throughout its history to bridge relations with the Ute Tribe, albeit somewhat clumsily at times.

The Daily Utah Chronicle reported in October 1951 that the U.S. Supreme Court awarded $17,000,000 (equal to $167,880,884.62 in 2019 money) in an effort to appease the Uintah-Ouray reservation and for “furthering educational standards of the people.” Eleven young people between the ages of 17 and 19 were selected and interviewed for acceptance into the university.

Utonian 1-1

“Hoyo” first appeared as the University of Utah mascot in 1947. Used with permission from Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

At the time the university used a mascot called Hoyo, a cartoonish Native American child. The Chronicle absent-mindedly reported in that issue that the acceptance of native peoples at the university meant Hoyo “will at last have some country cousins on campus to urge him on to greater activity.”

Letters to the Editor in an April 1970 issue of the Chronicle acknowledged the “Ute” identity as a sign of strength, vitality, and “a source of pride.” While other students found the university’s mascots racist, others believed those who found them offensive were reading too much into things.

In April 1972, the issue was addressed again in the Chronicle. The concern over the use of native people’s image in college sports was growing nationwide. According to the article, tribes were suing universities for appropriating names and images alike.

There was some reconciliation later on, at least from the Chronicle itself. In 1987, the paper decided to distinguish when it referred to the Ute Tribe and when it referred to the school by using quotations marks when referencing the school. That practice has since been abandoned.

April 2014 saw the University of Utah signing a Memorandum of Understanding with the Ute Tribe. The memorandum is a five-year agreement where the university is allowed to use the name of the tribe on a conditional basis.

Utonian 2-1

The image of “Hoyo” was ubiquitous, especially in school announcements and calendars. Used with permission from Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Among the conditions, the university is to include in its campus programs a member of the tribe who was not a student. The purpose of that is to “enhance Native American perspectives,” writes author Larry Gerlach in the summer 2017 issue of the Utah Historical Quarterly.

Other conditions to use the name include a tribe-approved Native American advisor, a special advisor to Native American affairs, a full-time advisor on the reservation for high school students to attend college, and financial aid and scholarships for Native American students.

The debate over the name came up once more in the Chronicle on August 2016. This time, it was about doing away with the “Ute” nickname altogether. The article deemed the nickname “culturally insensitive” when referring to the school. Two sides, one for and one against, argued their points much like Letters to the Editor did 46 years earlier.

The Chronicle reported in September 2019 efforts by the Housing and Residential Office and Social Justice Advocates to educate dorm residents and advisors on moving away from using familiar symbols and replacing them. They also suggested using the phrase “Go Utah” instead of “Go Utes.” To date, none of these transitions have been implemented.

According to Gerlach in his article for the Quarterly, the National Collegiate Athletic Association declared that starting February 1, 2006, “institutions with hostile or abusive racial/ethnic/national origin mascots, nicknames or imagery” were prohibited from hosting championship games or displaying their mascots in jerseys and uniforms during championship tournaments.

Despite these regulations, the University of Utah was permitted to keep the classic drum and feather logo. Students at the school continue to debate its use.

Controversy surrounding the use of Native American symbols and names has plagued professional, high school and college teams alike. For example, the Washington Redskins continue to stir up controversy with their name and logo.

The situation with the Redskins is similar to that of the University of Utah with the drum and feather logo and the name “Utes.” Most fans support the team name and logo while others support changing the name and image of the teams altogether.

The situation got more complicated in Cedar High School in Cedar City, a small town in the southwestern corner of Utah. The mascot “Redman” had started to raise the ire of some members of the Paiute community.

In a Salt Lake Tribune article from January 2019, various members of the Paiute community expressed personal conflict when it came to supporting the mascot for Cedar High School. Opinions were split; some supported it while others didn’t. The support came at a price for some and questioned whether such support was warranted in the face of communal backlash.

Since that time, the school opted to change the mascot. Google docs published in the school’s website say a committee of “students, faculty, staff, and alumni” moved forward with changing the identity and mascot of the school. They are now known as “Reds” and the mascot is a wolf.

Unlike Cedar High School, the University of Utah does not have even a sizeable population of Native peoples. Therefore, it cannot and likely will not form any sort of committee with the kind of influence that impacted Cedar High School to evolve away from its former mascot.

Also, changing mascots for the university will not have the same significance as it did for Cedar High School. A school with a high non-native population that moves from using a Native American symbol cannot appreciate the significance of that like a school with a high Native American population.

Regardless, there is still a strong sense of pride for fans who identify as “Utes.” It has not waned in the slightest despite objections from individuals who feel the identity of “Utes” should not be commercialized or casually used.

Despite the clamor to respect Native Americans and protect the image of the Ute Tribe, statistics from the Office of Budget and Institutional Analysis at the university say Native Americans accounted for 0% of first time freshmen, undergraduate or graduate students in 2018.

To date, there has been no inquiry on the tribe’s views of the name or how their image is appropriated and used by the University of Utah today.

Since the Memorandum of Understanding between the school and the Ute Mountain Tribe in 2014, there have been no formal documented objections from either side over the agreement.

How the Utes intend to proceed with their relationship with the university after all that has transpired remains to be seen.

Jacob Rueda is a junior majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism at the University of Utah.

Primary Sources

Connor Richards, “Debate: Should Utah Ditch The ‘Ute’ Nickname?” The Daily Utah Chronicle, August 29, 2016.

Indian Youths Enter U on Tribal Grant,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 9, 1951, 1.

Craig Glover, “Letters to the Editor: Seriously?,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, April 24, 1970, 1.

Indians See Red, Hide Skins to Ute,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, April 19, 1972, 2.

Memorandum of Understanding between the Ute Indian Tribe and the University of Utah,” April 2014.

Martin Raybould, “Letters: Bring ‘Ute’ Back into Football,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 13, 1984.

Natalie Colby, “Appropriation or Appreciation? Social Justice Advocates Host ‘Utah Fan Am I,’” The Daily Utah Chronicle, September 26, 2019.

New Policy Distinguishes ‘Utes,’” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 1, 1987.

Erin Alberty, “Is a ‘Redmen’ mascot racist or does it honor Native Americans? The debate is dividing a southern Utah town,” The Salt Lake Tribune, January 13, 2019.

The Utes Nickname Project, Communication Institute, The University of Utah.

Secondary Source

Gerlach, Larry R. “Appropriation and Accommodation: The University of Utah and the Utes.” Utah Historical Quarterly 85, no.3 (Summer 2017): 204-223.

Neal A. Maxwell, Hays Gorey, and William B. Smart on Freedom of the Press in 1962

By Ann Reich

Freedom of the press has been under fire since it was included in the First Amendment. Even today, ethical questions arise around the country concerning the right to release information. In critical moments news organizations have to weigh the consequences before publishing sensitive material.

Neal A. Maxwell

Neal A. Maxwell, as pictured in The Daily Utah Chronicle on January 17, 1962.

The early 1960s were a time of tumult for the United States. The country was in the midst of an indefinite cold war and problems with Cuba were heating up. In April of 1961 the Bay of Pigs invasion during President Kennedy’s term was a failure, and the press released information about the defeat. ( On January 17, 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle in the article, “Press Freedom’s Future,” said, “Presently the threat by the communist nations to the United States has again caused people to challenge freedom of the press.” It was a crucial time in history for the press, and freedom of the press was a significant topic in the journalism community.

On January 17, 1962, The University of Utah held a Great Issues Forum. At this event Neal A. Maxwell, the assistant to President A. Ray Olpin, discussed an essay he wrote titled, “Is Freedom of the Press Compatible with National Security?” After Maxwell, Hays Gorey, Salt Lake Tribune editor, and William B. Smart, head of the Deseret News editorial page, spoke on the same topic. (The Daily Utah Chronicle, p. 1)

In his essay, Maxwell analyzed the government’s relationship with the press, and his thoughts on a free press. Many times throughout history, the U.S. government has made a pact with the press to suspend fighting until a war or dangerous time is over. Maxwell argued that the Cold War was different and this suspension agreement could not be made. There was no end in sight during the Cold War, and the people needed information. (Maxwell, p. 46)

Maxwell argued that national security, especially with the military, was better with a free press. If the people know about the strengths, weaknesses, and plans in the military, then the executive branch would be presented with more choices regarding taking action. (Maxwell, p. 50)

Hays Gorey

Hays Gorey, a University of Utah alumnus, was pictured in The Daily Utah Chronicle on January 17, 1962.

Hays Gorey responded to Maxwell’s article. Gorey’s view agreed with Maxwell’s and he said that if the U.S. had no free press then it “would not be America at all.” (Gorey, p. 54) However, the press could cause some short-term harm to national security, but it is never lasting. While reporting on the mistakes of the U.S. could make the country weak in the moment, it would strengthen the country in the long run. The government would learn from their mistakes and would be less likely to repeat history if it was all documented by the press. Gorey was overall concerned with the government lasting. Free press might hurt the current government, but it has a more positive long-term outcome.

William B. Smart also wrote a response. Much of what he said aligned with Maxwell and Gorey: the free press had done well to protect national security. At the time of this speech, the country was in the midst of fighting communism. Smart mentioned President Kennedy’s fear of becoming like the enemy the country was fighting. The free press keeps the U.S. a democracy and stays away from too many governmental censorship.

William B. Smart

William B. Smart, pictured in The Daily Utah Chronicle on January 17, 1962, was head of the Deseret News editorial page.

Another important topic discussed was the fear caused by the press. Gorey claimed that it is better to know all of the horrifying events happening, then to be left afraid in the unknown. Maxwell brought up fear as a reason the government may push against the free press. However, Smart disagreed. In his comments he mentioned that the American citizens were “far more tough-minded” than what Maxwell implied. (Smart, p. 58)

Even though many events in the 1960s were mentioned by these speakers, their comments have been relevant throughout history. The Washington Post stated, “governments around the world are becoming more sophisticated in their efforts to censor expression.” (Rezaian) An increase in press censorship is largely due to the internet’s role in spreading information. Although the government will always attempt censorship in the interest of national security, freedom of the press will always be necessary.

Ann Reich is a senior at the University of Utah. Her major is communication with an emphasis in journalism.

Primary Sources

Neal A. Maxwell, “Is Freedom of the Press Compatible With National Security?” in Great Issues Concerning Freedom, ed. Waldemer P. Read (Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1962), 41-54.

Hays Gorey, “Comments” in Great Issues Concerning Freedom, ed. Waldemer P. Read (Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1962), 54-57.

William B. Smart, “Comments” in Great Issues Concerning Freedom, ed. Waldemer P. Read (Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1962), 57-60.

“Press Security To Theme Great Issues,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 16, 1962, 1.

Jackie Back, “Maxwell, Newsmen Set Examination Of Press,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 17, 1962, 1.

“Press Freedom’s Future,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 17, 1962, 2.

“Great Issues Airs Free Press In U.S.,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 18, 1962, 1.

“Vice President of U. Links Press Freedom, Security,” The Salt Lake Tribune, January 18, 1962, 24.

Secondary Sources

Editors, “Cuban Missile Crisis,”

Rezaian, Jason. “Dictators and the Internet: A Love Story,” The Washington Post, September 10, 2019.


Billy “The Hill” McGill: Utah’s Elite Center 1959-1962


Billy McGill holds up the No. 1 and a basketball in anticipation of the 1962 NBA Draft. Used with permission from Utah State History.

By Brayden Ramsay

Billy “The Hill” McGill was the University of Utah’s first college basketball player to be drafted as the No. 1 pick overall in the NBA draft, and the eighth African-American athlete taken No. 1 overall in NBA draft history. (Witucki) McGill was a phenom while at Utah (1959-1962), scorching the stat sheet and leading the Utes to a final four appearance. McGill’s time at Utah was glamorous as he topped national sports headlines and was widely known as one of the top college basketball players in the 1960s. After a short stint in the NBA, McGill left the league and soon found himself homeless. He would regret not getting his degree from the University of Utah up until he died in 2014. (Goon) Unfortunately, this scenario is all too familiar to college athletes across the United States of America. (Welch) Especially when it comes to basketball and football players.

Billy “The Hill” McGill was a six-foot nine-inch center from Los Angeles, California. McGill was someone who showed lots of potential in high school and eventually decided to attend the University of Utah for his college athletics career. McGill was a standout for the Utes in his freshman and sophomore seasons but was still a talent with lots of potential yet to be uncovered. After flashes of bright spots throughout his first seasons at Utah, McGill burst onto the scene in 1961 showing the world that he was a force to be reckoned with.

Expectations were sky high heading into the 1961 season as Billy “The Hill” McGill was heading into his final year as a Ute. In January of 1961, The Daily Utah Chronicle reported that Head Coach Jack Gardner said Billy McGill was among the best in basketball. Gardner wasn’t the only person to take note though, as national news outlets and NBA teams were also noticing. Teams and fans were going to have their eyes on McGill during the season, not only for his dominating performances, but also for school records that people were excited for McGill to break.

The upper classmen took on the lower classmen in the University of Utah’s annual red vs white game in November of 1961. This may have been an exhibition game, but this is where fans were able to get their first glance at what McGill could become through the 1961 season. The Daily Utah Chronicle writer Joe Ribotto brought McGill’s 50-point effort to life as the Utes created opportunities for him to showcase his skill in the teams opening matchup. McGill also showcased his rebounding skills with 26 on the night.

Utah’s big man was just getting started. Throughout the 1961-1962 season, McGill would continue to have monumental games and inch his way closer to the University of Utah’s record books.


Billy McGill looks to score a basket during a photoshoot with the Salt Lake Tribune in 1961. Used with permission from Utah State History.

McGill’s most famous game as a Runnin’ Ute came when his team needed it most, scoring 60-points in an effort against in-state rival BYU. In February of 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle writer Dave Smith described McGill’s performance as “blistering” as he scored 19-points in the final 12 minutes of play to lead the Utes to a 106-101 victory.

Astronomical scoring games seemed to come easily for McGill, especially in crucial games. In March 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle writer Norm Sheya put an emphasis on the importance of McGill’s 50-point performance that solidified the Skyline Conference Championship for the University of Utah. He would lead the Utes in scoring during Utah’s 19 point victory over Wyoming. This conference championship would allow a spot for the Utes in postseason play.

In his final year at Utah, McGill not only broke records. He shattered them. In March 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle writer Dave Smith expounded on the records that McGill set during his time at the University of Utah. This list included most field goals made, best field percentage, most total points, and most points per game average.

McGill would find his name at the top of many NBA teams wish lists towards the end of his senior season. When draft night finally rolled around, his name was the first one called. In May 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle writer Ernie Witucki was among the first to report that McGill had been selected as the number one overall pick in the NBA draft by Chicago. The signing of the contract would bring a close to a career where McGill scored over 2,000 points as a Ute and held almost every basketball record in the Skyline Conference.

The top of the mountain had finally been reached, and McGill accomplished what he had originally set out to do. Becoming the top draft pick and starting an NBA career is what most athletes could only dream of. It had now become a reality for the kid from Los Angeles. Sometimes though, dreams don’t always turn out as planned.

McGill’s life in the NBA started off well, signing a two-year contract to play for Chicago. He would eventually be traded to the New York Knicks where he would make a few appearances before being traded to the St. Louis Hawks which eventually led to the Los Angeles Lakers.

Although McGill was once the top pick in the NBA Draft, he struggled to find a team that would sign him for more than a few seasons at a time. The ABA would come calling in his final two years as a pro before McGill decided to retire. In February 2011, The Los Angeles Times writer Jerry Crowe wrote a story on how McGill had really struggled since leaving the University of Utah for the NBA. He didn’t have a degree, and when the NBA didn’t go as planned, he became homeless and had a difficult time finding somewhere to land on his feet.

This is an all-too-familiar story to many college athletes who leave school early to take their shot at professional sports. In 1999, Welch Suggs of the Chronicle of Higher Education did a study on graduation rates of college athletes. Suggs found that men and women who played basketball and football had the lowest graduation rate of other collegiate sports. Something that the NCAA requires is for college athletes to take part in one season of collegiate athletics before entering the NBA draft. Unfortunately, this means that kids go to college without the mentality to graduate before moving on to professional athletics. Instead, they attend college and get by in order to enter the NBA draft as quickly as possible.

Billy McGill died in Salt Lake City in July 2014. He was 74 years old. The Salt Lake Tribune writer Kyle Goon paid tribute to McGill after the basketball star’s death by talking to his former teammates. One teammate, Jerry Pimm, described McGill as “one of the greatest players I’ve seen or been associated with.” McGill is survived by his wife, Gwen, and his grandson, Ryan Watkins.

The tragedy of Billy “The Hill” McGill shows the importance of getting a college degree before looking for professional work. It’s always important to have a backup plan in place for any profession, but especially if the route of professional sports is taken. Injury, performance issues, and failing expectations are among the many reasons why professional sports have a high chance of not working out. Before college athletes take off for greener pastures, they should consider getting their degrees so that just in case things don’t work out, a backup plan is in place.

Brayden Ramsay graduated from the University of Utah in December 2019 after majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism. He was on the sports desk at the Daily Utah Chronicle and plans to continue his education by earning a master’s degree in sports management.

Primary Sources

Jack Gardner: ‘McGill is Basketball’s Best.’” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 26, 1961, 4.

Joe Ribotto, “McGill Tanks 50 Points As Utes Whip Frosh 150-126,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 28, 1961, 4.

Dave Smith, “McGill Scores Sixty for Conference Mark,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, February 26, 1962, 4.

Dave Smith, “Utah’s Record Smasher Faces Final Battle,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, March 2, 1962, 5.

Norm Sheya, “Utes, McGill Leave Skyline with Victory,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, March 5, 1962, 1.

Ernie Witucki, “It’s Settled — McGill Signs Chicago Packer Contract,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, May 15, 1962, 4.

Secondary Sources

Suggs, Welch. “Graduation Rates Hit Lowest Level in 7 Years for Athletes in Football and Basketball.” Chronicle of Higher Education, September 10, 1999.

Crowe, Jerry. “Billy McGill Has Difficult Time With Life After Basketball,” Los Angeles Times, February 20, 2011

Goon, Kyle. “Utah basketball: Utes pioneer Bill McGill dies at 74,” Salt Lake Tribune, July 12, 2014


The Pieces of a Bigger Story: How Early Women Penetrated the Male-Dominated Field of Engineering


Margaret Ferron, upper left, and Dorothy Craig are examples of how World War II influenced women in certain fields of work. Ferron is seen here with her drawing board in the mechanical drawing lab while Craig is seen doing some “experimenting.” Used with permission, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

By Eliza Jane Pace

In 2019, according to the Office of Budget and Institutional Analysis at the University of Utah, there are a great number of people enrolled in engineering majors. However, there are large discrepancies in the numbers when comparing genders. At a pre-major level for instance, only 3,387 are women while men number 4,290, a whopping 903 person difference. That’s not the only area of difference. In every aspect of every engineering major, pre-major, to bachelors, to doctorate, men outnumber women. This difference is not unusual. The Daily Utah Chronicle has several articles as early as the 1930s talking about the novelty of women enrolled in engineering majors.

The professor and head of the electrical engineering department, Dr. L. D. Harris, was quoted in The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 17, 1961, stating, “We’ve had two women graduate in this field -— both in the 1930s.” In an earlier article it mentions the names of these two women listed as graduating from the engineering program, Dorothy Blades in 1924 and Mary Frances Plumb in 1934 in The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 27, 1935.

Even by 1961, 31 years later, only one or two women decided to take on the challenge of entering the engineering field as stated in The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 17. This article will explore the women who penetrated these fields and how their position as women in engineering fields was treated.

Each of these women have their own reasons for entering the field and their own opinions about women in engineering.


Judy Brown was honored for her achievements in her field of civil engineering by the Associated Women Students. She was one of only two women enrolled in engineering fields. Used with permission, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

A senior in civil engineering, Judy Brown, was a transfer student from the University of Wyoming and used to being the only girl in her classes. She continued as the only woman registered in upper classes in any field of engineering at the University of Utah and was eventually honored by the AWS or Associated Women Students, reported The Daily Utah Chronicle on November 16, 1961, for her accomplishments in her field of study and her 3.92 grade point average.

Despite being told on her first day that the “Frosh English class was across the hall,” Brown laughed. “They finally decided that maybe I belonged.”

Margaret Ferron was highlighted in The Daily Utah Chronicle, February 25, 1943, and chose to enter engineering because it was a family affair.  She said that despite what others believed she was not in the field for attention or to find a man. “My father happens to be an engineer, and so are my two brothers; in fact, I just come from an engineering family, and I decided to carry on the tradition.”

Ferron added, “There’s a lot of prejudice against women engineers at the present time. But I think it will be all dispelled as the war makes it more and more necessary for women to be trained to take the place of men in the engineering field.”

According to The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 27, 1935, Opal Cummings age 16 was the only girl registered in any field of engineering at the University of Utah at that time. A graduate of local West High School, she believed that “women are just as well qualified as men in engineering.”

Each of these women have a story, and represent part of an even bigger story still being told. Women have certainly increased their presence in the workplace since the early to mid 1900s, but the trend of males dominating in engineering fields continue.

Some claim it’s because of the lifestyles women lead, with many choosing to have children or raise a family, lifestyles that are not as conducive to having such an intensive major and job. According to an article in the Salt Lake Tribune in June 2013, “Far fewer women study STEM fields at Utah colleges -— just 12% of engineering degrees … go to women.” However, even the language of the articles portrays a difference of societal expectations, as seen in The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 17, 1961, which focused on how the female students would still “find a husband.” It’s hard to tell how much of this large gap in numbers is because of sexism and oppression or if it’s simply the result of a different culture and expectations. But one thing is for sure, these early women who were willing to push beyond any barriers in engineering fields have paved the way for women to come.

Eliza Jane Pace is a sophomore at the University of Utah, majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism and a minor in music. 

Primary Sources

Girl Engineer Dislikes Males,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 27, 1935.

Is Engineering for Males Only? Nope! Ute Coeds’re In,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 17, 1961.

AWS Honors Engie Coed,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 16, 1961.

Utah Coeds Go All Out for War,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, February 25, 1943.

University to Graduate 296 Students,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, May 18, 1944.

Walter Crosby Eells, “Earliest Collegiate Degrees Authorized for Women,” Educational Horizons 39 no. 4 (Summer 1961): 135-37.

Lindsay Whitehurst, “Why are Utah women far behind men in STEM education, jobs?” The Salt Lake Tribune, June 8, 2013.

Secondary Source

Office of Budget and Institutional Analysis, The University of Utah.





Dr. Ewart Swinyard and his Contribution to Pharmaceutical Progress in Universities

By Bryce Merrill

Ewart A. Swinyard was born January 3, 1909, in Logan, Utah. Later in life he was a student, professor and dean of the College of Pharmacy at the University of Utah. He taught the students about advances made in the field of pharmaceutical research and founded the U’s school of Alcoholism and Drugs. He was constantly looking at the future of pharmacology and felt the need to instill that urgency in students of the field as well. He died on July 10, 1997.


Dr. Ewart A. Swinyard in 1961. He delivered a lecture around this time about the future of pharmacology on campus. From The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 20, 1961.

Swinyard had a degree in zoology from Utah State University and later received a degree in pharmacology from the University of Utah, Idaho State University, and the University of Minnesota each. (The Deseret News) The Provo Sunday Herald reported that he was one of the first people to get a graduate degree from the University of Utah in 1947. The Vernal Express noted that he even received an honorary doctorate from Utah State University in 1983 in the university’s 90th commencement.

Swinyard was interested in all advances in the pharmaceutical field he stated in an address on the University of Utah Campus in 1961. He said he hoped that expenditures in drug research would increase which would indicate more progress was being made in the field. (The Daily Utah Chronicle) He also discussed methods used to discover new drugs. The methods he discussed were; accidents, specifically designed chemical structures, and screening of new drugs, as reported by the Chronicle before his talk on October 19, 1961.

In a speech Swinyard gave in 1977 titled “Research and Graduate Education in Pharmacy: Looking Back – Looking Forward” he expressed his concern with the state of the contributions of universities and colleges to progress in the field. He emphasized that “tomorrow … is being made today” to point out that if the university did not focus on educating students better and increasing its contribution to science it could be left behind in the future. (Ewart Anslie Swinyard Papers, Box 8, Folder 1)


Dr. Swinyard running an experiment on a mouse while researching a cure for epilepsy in 1967. From The Daily Utah Chronicle, May 9, 1967.

One of the focuses of Swinyard’s work was finding a cure for seizures and epilepsy. The Salt Lake Telegram, on August 13, 1949, reported he was part of a team doing research on epilepsy. Another article, again in The Daily Utah Chronicle on May 9, 1967, states that Dr. Swinyard had “been investigating convulsive disorders for 20 years.” His research involving mice was cited by Dr. David L. Hiner, the then dean of the School of Pharmacy, as getting “health sciences … closer to the solution of the control of epileptic seizures than ever before.”

Eighteen years later The Daily Utah Chronicle published an article about Swinyard’s continued research on curing epilepsy. At that time, he was the director of the Antiepileptic Drug Development Laboratory in the U’s College of Pharmacy. He said the “NIH (National Institute of Health) decided to start a program of their own” when it found out no pharmaceutical firm was actively working on an anti-epileptic drug.

Dr. Ewart A. Swinyard’s contributions as the dean and founder of the University of Utah’s College of Pharmacy helped shape the school’s future thanks to his forward-thinking attitude. (The Deseret News) Dr. Swinyard was an important part of the university’s past, present, and future due to his foresight and focus. His constant commitment to furthering not just the school’s place in its field but to developing life changing drugs to help others, Dr. Swinyard’s presence is felt by all those who have benefited from the School of Pharmacy, be they student or teacher.

Bryce Merrill is a senior at the University of Utah. He is majoring in strategic communication and minoring in sociology.

Primary Sources

900 Students Get Diplomas,” Provo Sunday Herald, June 15, 1947, 5.

DeVan Shumway, “Physician Sees Possibility Of Cure for Epilepsy,” Salt Lake Telegram, August 13, 1949, 10.

Elaine Krans, “Dr. Ewart Swinyard Set Lecture On ‘Drugs From Laboratory To Man,’” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 19, 1961, 1.

Swinyard Cites Progress In Pharmacy Research,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 20, 1961, 1.

Epileptic Control,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, May 9, 1967, 5.

Researchers test mice for cure of seizures,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, September 30, 1985, 13.

USU Graduates Listed for 1983,” Vernal Express, May 25, 1983, 20.

Funeral set for Ewart A. Swinyard,” Deseret News, July 14, 1997.

Secondary Source

Swinyard, Ewart Anslie. The Ewart Anslie Swinyard Papers, 1945-1987. Box 8, Folder 1, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.