U of U Students’ proposal of the trip to the Utah-Colorado football game in Boulder

By Ashley Ji Won Oh

This article is about the Utah homecoming football game against Colorado in Boulder. During World War II, the football team at the University of Utah participated in flight courses as part of a national program to teach 20,000 college men to reinforce and strengthen the nation’s air defense. This is because football was a nice distraction from the tough wartime abroad. Student groups held seminars about the effects of anti-Semitism on Utah’s campus. Even though the atmosphere was heavy and tragic, Utah football was a great way to forget for that moment. (War years)

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A University of Utah team practice sometime between 1940 and 1949. Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

The A. S. U. U. council proposed a chartered train trip to Boulder, where the Utah homecoming football game against Colorado would be held. The proposal indicated that from this trip, students would be able to build a strong friendship and boost school spirit. The deans council emphasized that responsibility and feasibility of trust were the most important to consider for approving the proposal. (Whitney)

After weeks of delay, the Boulder trip proposal was finally approved by the deans council. The train was scheduled to depart the Union Pacific depot at 6 p.m. Friday, November 1, 1940, for the Utah-Colorado football game in Boulder on Saturday, November 2. The transportation fee for men was $12, and for women, $16. The reason why women had a higher rate is that they were required to ride in sleeper cars. The University of Colorado had a dance on Saturday evening, following the game day. Many university students attended those events. (“‘U’ Students Will Take Grid Jaunt”)

Campus royalty honored their name on Thursday due to Mary Margaret Malmsten and Robert Johnston, elected queen and king of the annual homecoming events. Marie Folsom and Ruth Hunter were elected aides to Queen Malmsten and King Johnston. After Jack Buckle, the homecoming committee president, started the events, the first official presentation of the royalty would proceed on Friday both at the gathering and the rally. Johnston, a junior, was known as a “glamor boy.” He also was the wounded quarterback of the university football team. (“Football Player”)

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The Utah-Colorado football game was featured in the 1941 Utonian, the University of Utah yearbook. Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

The university students who planned to participate in the trip to Boulder had to be respectable and certify that they would show up at the football game at Boulder. The Chronicle‘s features editor, Richard B. Pyke, was critical of the strict regulations for the trip to Boulder. “At any other university,” he wrote, “the problem of arranging for a student train would be a commonplace procedure, with student officers taking charge.” Not so at the University of Utah, Pyke noted, where senior administration reserved the right to sanction the trip and establish rules governing deportment. (Pyke)

The University of Utah football team won the Utah-Colorado football game 21-13 in Boulder. Members of the alumni club there celebrated the U’s victory by having buffalo steaks at a post-game dinner. According to a November 7, 1940, story in the Utah Chronicle, club members could “hold their heads up” after defeating the University of Colorado. (“Redskin Alumni Feast”)

This article about the trip to Boulder for the University of Utah football game against Colorado is an effective way not only to study and research in-depth about university’s football history but also to compare the university’s football culture in the past and now.

Ashley Ji Won Oh graduated in December 2018 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Communication.

Sources

John Whitney, “The Boulder Trip,” Utah Chronicle, October 17, 1940, 4.

Football Player[,] L.A. Transfer Capture Crowns,” Utah Chronicle, October 24, 1940, 1.

Redskin Alumni Feast on Buffalo Steaks after Colorado Hunt,” Utah Chronicle, November 7, 1940, 3.

“‘U’ Students Will Take Grid Jaunt – Special Train to Carry Injun Envoy,” Utah Chronicle, October 24, 1940, 1.

Richard B. Pyke, “We’ve Grown Up,” Utah Chronicle, October 31, 1940, 4.

Hinckley, Shane. University of Utah Football Vault. Salt Lake City: University of Utah. 2010.

Kerr, Walter A. Intercollegiate Athletics University of Utah 1892-1945. Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1975.

 

 

 

Expressing the Importance of Buying War Bonds and Stamps

 

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American Home Foods, window display, April 23, 1945; Shipler Commercial Photographers. Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

By Eric U. Norris

During World War II, the war effort couldn’t be stressed more to the public than through the importance of buying stamps and bonds. The Utah Chronicle reported on April 8, 1943, that the University of Utah was starting a bond drive on April 19 with the goal of reaching $75,000 to buy a P-51 Mustang fighter plane by June 1. If the drive reached its goal the fighter plane would have the university’s name painted on its nose when it flew into its first battle. The Utah Chronicle made it a point to get young people involved and well informed in the war effort and contained multiple articles that detailed the development of the drive and how much money was raised.

The Utah Chronicle article “Easter Morn to Bring out Newest Fashions in War Time Clothing” mirrored many of the wartime efforts by magazines to encourage the purchase of war bonds. The majority of the article listed the newest spring clothing the campus coeds would be wearing on Easter Sunday. However, the author, Gladys Barker, tagged on at the end of the article, “It’s not wise to say that old bear ‘Vanity’ will not overcome that desire to save money for war bonds and stamps.” Its addition seems to contradict the theme of spending money on clothing yet it blatantly displays the obsession in raising money for the war effort.

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Donor Everett L. Cooley holds a chart indicating money raised for the War Fund Drive, May 1942. From left: Arthur Gaeth Dommenter; J. Fielding Smith; E. J. Dreyfons; Mrs. Wm. Gibbs McAdoo. Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

World War II brought out this involvement from the public to support itself. Basically, those who weren’t drafted were encouraged to buy stocks and stamps to fund those who were involved in the war — some of whom were University of Utah students. The overt patriotism that came up after the United States entered the war really shows in some of these articles and advertisements. One ad filled the entire page of an April issue of the Utah Chronicle. It depicted a caricature of Adolf Hitler with a swastika in the background. On the left side it read “JUNK HIM” and on the right side it read “BUY BONDS.” World War II was presented and is often remembered as a very black and white, good versus evil type war. The Nazis and the Axis Powers were considered evil and the US and its allies were good, so it was very easy to assimilate a communal aspect to the American public, and on a smaller scale, to the students at the University of Utah, especially when the majority of information people received about international affairs were from printed publications.

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Utah Chronicle, April 29, 1943.

The drive worked as a great marketing ploy to get students to help out. By contributing to the drive, students were aiding the US in its quest for victory, and their school’s name would be on that fighter plane attempting to achieve it. The Utah Chronicle went as far as writing an article on April 29 that Nazi forces would infiltrate the campus on Friday, April 30, in an attempt to dissuade anyone from purchasing any securities in the form of war bonds and stamps. This article, “Nazi Forces to Blitz Utes on Friday,” read as a letter from Colonel Reinhart Von Schlubbe, but it wasn’t true. However, it sparked a reaction by students and resulted in a total of $1,000 in stamps and bonds that were bought that day despite the alleged raid, according to The Utah Chronicle’s May 6 article “Nazis Leave After High Stamp Sale,” which, of course, included a reminder about the bond drive and when and where to purchase bonds and stamps.

Despite the effort put into the advertising and emphasis in the articles for war bonds and stamps, the drive itself didn’t do well. The Utah Chronicle also reported on May 6 how the University of Utah only gathered $8,000 in five weeks for the drive, while the “high school down the street” managed to raise $45,000 in eight days. To add on, it brought the patriotism of the university into question and challenged the students to answer by buying more bonds and stamps. While the cause for the drive was to raise money to aid the military, the reward for reaching the goal made it look like it was a popularity contest. It felt that the U was trying to be the school that could say, “We raised the most money! We rallied for the cause! And now our name is immortalized in this war on the nose of a P-51 Mustang Fighter Plane!”

Eric U. Norris is a senior at the University of Utah. He’s majoring in communication with an emphasis on journalism. He is also a senior staff writer for SLUG Magazine.

Sources

Martin Tubbs, “U Sponsors Plane in Stamp Drive,” Utah Chronicle, April 8, 1943, 1.

Gladys Barker, “Easter Morn to Bring out Newest Fashions in War Time Clothing,” Utah Chronicle, April 22, 1943, 3.

Nazi Forces to Blitz Utes Friday,” Utah Chronicle, April 29, 1943, 1.

Advertisement, “Heil Hitler: Junk Him; Buy Bonds,” Utah Chronicle, April 29, 1943, 3.

Nazis Leave After High Stamp Sale,” Utah Chronicle, May 6, 1943, 1.

Bond Drive Shows Little Enthusiasm,” Utah Chronicle, May 6, 1943, 2.

 

 

 

 

Preparing for War: How the University of Utah Handled the Effects of World War II

By Lindsay Montague

The year was 1940 and World War II was into its second year. The United States had not declared war yet but on September 16 the US instituted the Service Act of 1940, which required all men between the ages of 21 and 45 to register for the draft. This age requirement was lowered to 18 in 1942. Many young American men were impacted by the draft, including students in college or planning to go to college. The University of Utah saw the impact of this Act and also prepared to do its part in the war effort.

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University of Utah President LeRoy E. Cowles. Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

According to the book, University of Utah and World War II by LeRoy E. Cowles, president of the university from 1941 to 1946, there was a decrease in student enrollment for the 1941 fall semester. (p. 27) This was in contrast to the pattern of an increase in enrollment for the previous ten years. “There would certainly have been an increase in 1941 instead of a decrease, had it not been for the impending war,” Cowles wrote. (p. 27)

This was just the beginning, and the effects of the war grew. A few months into the semester came the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and then the US officially entered World War II. Three days later, The Utah Chronicle published a letter to students from President Cowles. “We are at war!” he wrote. “I know you will do your duty. University students are noted for their patriotism and their idealism. They have always been among the first to respond and among the most valiant when our country has needed them.”

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University Field House. Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

What follows for the university is exactly that. The Utah Chronicle was constantly reporting on the university’s efforts during the war. On February 26, 1942, the Chronicle reported that “President Cowles has appointed a committee in charge of initiating, supervising, and coordinating the efforts of the institution.” With cooperation from the Committee on Civilian Defense and Military Affairs, Cowles appointed sub-committees to oversee the projects of four phases of the campus defense program. The committee also released a pamphlet known as the “University Defense Communique” for students and faculty members. The projects reported on included: 1. Air Raid Precautions 2. Information Service 3. Cooperative Recreation Program 4. Civilian Morale Service. Not only did the war mean more programs for the university, but it also meant physical changes for the campus. In 1943 the University Fieldhouse was converted to Army Barracks which hosted 1,000 military men. (Cowles, p. 152)

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“Time’s A-Wastin”: cartoon promoting the purchase of savings bonds. Published in The Utah Chronicle on February 12, 1942.

As previously stated, The Utah Chronicle was a great source to inform students about campus and war events. It was also a source for advertisements, and the publication of letters and accounts by students who were drafted, experienced a war event, or who participated in local civilian defense efforts. In one article titled “University Student Gets Taste of War,” published on February 19, 1942, student Ralph Chalker told his story about returning from Hawaii when war was declared. According to the article, “Fear of a Japanese attack was the first reaction of passengers,” considering that their ship was within 100 miles of the torpedoed Matson freighter. They returned safely and half a day early as the ship had increased its speed. Advertisements geared toward students would notify them about events on campus that boosted war morale or those of which the proceeds went toward the war. Both an article in The Utah Chronicle and an advertisement published on February 19 urged students to support the “War Relief Dance.” People were urged to “Be Patriotic!” as all the proceeds would go to support local war relief societies.

Many of the changes made to the University of Utah are still relevant today. According to an overview of the university during the years of the Great Depression and World War II, the war brought forth developments to student programs, the establishment of a summer quarter, courses in meteorology and photography, expansion of engineering and medical programs, and an increase to the participation of women in works on and off campus. When the war ended on September 2, 1945, faculty and students celebrated and the student population doubled.

In the last chapter of President Cowles’s book, University of Utah and World War II, he writes:

The University is facing forward, not backward. She has passed through tragic depressions, and two great and destructive wars. She has grown and expanded in spite of limited rations. She is just beginning her maturity as a real Alma Mater. For decades and for centuries to come, she will grow in power and prestige, and will radiate intelligence, and make better living a reality. (p. 227)

Lindsay Montague is a student at The University of Utah. She is majoring in mass communication.

Sources

LeRoy E. Cowles, “To Students of the University of Utah,” Utah Chronicle, December 10, 1941, 4.

Billy DeBeck, “Times a Wastin’,” Utah Chronicle, February 12, 1942, 3.

University Student Gets Taste of War,” Utah Chronicle, February 19, 1942, 3.

“‘U’ Dance to Swell War Fund,” Utah Chronicle, February 19, 1942, 3.

Advertisement, ASUU War Relief Dance, Utah Chronicle, February 19, 1942, 2.

Morale Unit Appoints Sub Groups,” Utah Chronicle, February 26, 1942, 1.

LeRoy E. Cowles. University of Utah and World War II. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret News Press, 1948.

The Great Depression and World War II” and “Rapid Expansion, 1946-1964,” The University of Utah Sesquicentennial, 1850-2000.

Postwar Planning at the University of Utah

By David Miller

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Fort Douglas (aerial), 1920-1940. Fort Douglas Military Museum, Salt Lake City.

World War II ushered in a time of radical change for the United States. Men and women went to war by the thousands and those who stayed home were forced to pick up the slack. The end of the war in 1945 was a relief for millions around the world, but the change was sudden and drastic and many had a hard time adapting. Universities across the country had to work especially hard to adapt to a post-war world. On June 9, 1944, the Progressive Opinion reported that “our own school system faces one of the greatest crisis in its history and, likewise, some of the greatest changes.” Elinore H. Partridge explains in the article “A. Ray Olpin and the Postwar Emergency at the University of Utah” that these changes were based mostly around two events that were tied to the end of World War II. GIs were coming home and looking for an education and all the teachers had either gone to war or switched to a more financially sustainable job in the war industry. (p. 197) Though the changes were swift, the University of Utah was not caught off guard. Plans had already been made and policies set into motion.

By the early 1940s, the University of Utah had adapted greatly to a nation committed to the war effort. Salt Lake City newspapers reported on the university’s wartime transformation. The Salt Lake Telegram reported on December 31, 1943, that “already more than 1,000 young men in khaki are pursuing studies designed to prepare them as efficient cogs in a war machine.” Yet, even as women and men left for the war, those who remained behind began to plan for the future after the conflict.

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Utah Chronicle, May 4, 1944.

On February 15, 1944, The Salt Lake Telegram reported that “a postwar planning council for Salt Lake City to ‘Integrate effort and coordinate a multiplicity of plans’ was approved.” The Utah Chronicle reported on September 21, 1944, that Brigham Young University would hold a conference on postwar planning for the “representatives of Utah’s institutions of higher learning.”

The University of Utah hosted similar discussions on postwar planning which were announced in the Utah Chronicle. For example, the paper reported on April 20, 1944, that “the school of business is doing its post-war planning by charting new courses for returning soldiers and by discussing their plans with downtown businessmen and government officials.” The University of Utah even helped to draft resolutions to send to their state representatives, the Utah Chronicle reported on May 5, 1944. According to the same article, “The resolutions had been discussed by the State College of Washington” and were then amended after being discussed at a public meeting at the University of Utah. Steps like these demonstrate how the University of Utah was committed to finding the most efficient way to navigate these trying times.

When the war finally did end in 1945, the impact on Utah was almost immediate. In January 1946, the University of Utah employed around 225 full-time faculty members and had around 3,000 students. In months enrollment rose to 5,300 and by the next year, it was up to 10,000. (Partridge, p. 197)

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A. Ray Olpin, University of Utah president from 1940-1960. Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

The problem wasn’t just with the number of new students either. According to a May 1944 article in the Progressive Opinion, a newspaper published in Salt Lake City, “American schools have lost 200,000 competent well-prepared teachers since Pearl Harbor.” With too many new students and not enough teachers, a downgrade in the quality of higher education in Utah looked inevitable. But Utah met these problems head-on.

The University of Utah went to great lengths to accommodate new students, especially veterans, under the leadership of president A Ray Olpin. A lot of the time these vets had families and current student housing was too expensive. According to Partridge, “Olpin and his staff worked throughout the spring of 1946 to acquire family-dwelling units. By summer, after countless telegrams between Olpin and United States Senators Abe Murdock and Elbert D. Thomas, 301 family units were moved in to place to form an instant community.” (p. 197)

World War II brought about changes at institutions around the world and the University of Utah was no exception. The University planned for and then reacted to the end of the war with the power of intellect. This chapter in the school’s history demonstrates the value institutions of higher education can have to their communities. They are places where ideas are born and plans are executed.

David Miller is a student at the University of Utah. He is planning on graduating in 2020 with a double major in communication and psychology.

Sources

“War Science Eclipses Art at Utah Campus,” Salt Lake Telegram, December 31, 1943, 9.

“City Board Appoints Postwar Planning Council to Coordinate Multiplicity of Movements,” Salt Lake Telegram, February 15, 1944, 7.

“Postwar Planning,” Utah Chronicle, April 20, 1944, 4.

“Resolutions Go To Congress,” Utah Chronicle, May 4, 1944, 1.

Baukhage, “U.S. School System Faces Greatest Crisis in History,” Progressive Opinion, June 9, 1944, 3.

“16 U Teachers To Attend BYU Meeting,” Utah Chronicle, September 21, 1944, 1.

Partridge, Elinore. “A. Ray Olpin and the Postwar Emergency at the University of Utah,” Western Historical Quarterly 48, no. 1 (Winter 1980): 195-206.

 

Elaine Cannon: The Feminist LDS Leader Who Got Her Start at The Utah Chronicle

By Alaikia Miller

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Elaine Cannon at the KSL television studio, where she hosted a weekly program for teenagers as reported in the October 7, 1949, issue of The Bulletin.

Elaine Cannon, born Elaine Anderson, graduated from the University of Utah in 1943 with a degree in sociology. During her time at the university, Anderson contributed light commentary pieces to The Utah Chronicle. She went on to write for The Deseret News, authored over 50 books, and became the eighth president of the Young Women organization in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a position she held from 1978-1984. Cannon, who died in 2003, is remembered for her dedication to her family, to the church and to young women and youth around the globe. (“Elaine Cannon Dies”)

Interested in writing early in life, Anderson started a school paper while attending junior high. She also launched a weekly paper following high school graduation. (Woodger, p. 183) The Salt Lake Telegram reported on March 6, 1939, that the Red and Black, the paper Anderson helped start for West High School, would be the first “home-printed paper” at that school.

During her time at the University of Utah, Anderson wrote for The Utah Chronicle, the school’s independent student paper. Her contributions to the Chronicle were light commentaries on current events, both general and campus specific. In an October 1940 issue of The Utah Chronicle, Anderson is listed as the assistant women’s page editoran achievement that isn’t mentioned in the various publications about Anderson’s life and work.

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One of Elaine Cannon’s earliest articles in The Utah Chronicle, which appeared in the October 10, 1940, issue.

The fifth page of The Utah Chronicle was dedicated to articles written by and for women attending the University of Utah. The “Women’s Page” was established in September 1935, first appearing in the September 26 issue. In one of Anderson’s earliest articles published in The Utah Chronicle, “College Transfers Give Opinions on U. of U.,” she shared the opinions of University of Utah students who transferred from other institutions. Anderson noted that young women who joined the university appreciated the number of tall men and the dancing styles on campus. Throughout her student writing career, Anderson would offer comments on campus fraternities and advice for freshman women. She also contributed a recurring column called “Campus Ramblings.”

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Elaine Cannon with her husband, James Cannon, during his 1964 campaign for governor, as published in the June 25 issue of the Vernal Express.

Anderson also wrote for The Salt Lake Telegram while attending the university and would eventually become society editor for the Deseret News, where she wrote under her married name, Cannon. (Woodger, pp. 183-84) Throughout her career, she wrote numerous articles for various publications, including Seventeen. (Woodger, p. 178) Anderson, who wed in March 1943, also briefly hosted a local weekly television program for teenagers, which was announced in the October 7, 1949, issue of The Bulletin, a small publication for residents of the Sugar House neighborhood. Cannon also contributed articles and served as society editor.

At the time of her appointment as Young Women president, the women’s liberation movement was in full swing. Cannon’s appointment was very near groundbreaking, as she became the first president who was employed outside of the home. She balanced the duties of being a full-time mother of six, her work as a writer and her duties to the church. Cannon spoke often about the balance of her duties and how she was always looking for ways her career could help serve the church. (Woodger, p. 175)

While she herself worked outside of the home, her focus as Young Women president was still on advocating for a woman’s duty to her family, as this was a priority of church leadership at the time. She noted that while having a family and a career was an option for her, all women are different. What was fine for her life might not work for someone else. (Woodger, p. 176)

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The cover of Elaine Cannon’s book, which was published in 1987 by Deseret Book Company.

When ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) began in 1971, the LDS church struggled to form a conclusive opinion. Leadership seemed adamant that the bill was vague and unnecessary. Cannon agreed with the opinions of church leaders. However, the bill still inspired her to make efforts toward providing security and empowerment to women in the church. In response to the discussion over the ERA, Cannon helped create a separate magazine for youth in the church, restructured the Young Women General Board, implemented a Sunday class specifically for young women and established the first LDS women’s meeting. (Woodger, pp. 181-83)

Cannon wasn’t just dedicated to serving young women, but all youth. In 1955, Seventeen magazine provided Cannon an award for her support of teen activities and she served as a delegate at the 1959 White House Conference on Youth. (“Elaine Cannon Dies”)

Elaine Anderson Cannon’s writing career began early and carried on throughout her entire life. However, her work as a writer and leader within the LDS church barely scratches the surface. Cannon had a brimming life, marked by her dedication to her faith and her community.

Alaikia Marielle Miller is a senior at the University of Utah and is set to graduate in May 2019 with a B.S. in communications and journalism. Alaikia is currently a senior staff writer for The Daily Utah Chronicle and can be found across all platforms under @mariellerrrr.

Sources

“West High Will Celebrate First ‘Home-Printed’ Paper,” Salt Lake Telegram, March 6, 1939, 10.

“The Utah Chronicle: List of staff members,” Utah Chronicle, October 24, 1940, 4.

“Women’s Page,” Utah Chronicle, September 26, 1935, 5.

Elaine Anderson, “College Transfers Give Opinions on U. of U.,” Utah Chronicle, October 10, 1940, 5.

Elaine Anderson, “Freshman Women Express Views on Fraternities to Reveal Many Startling Conceptions,” Utah Chronicle, November 14, 1940, 5.

Elaine Anderson, “Scribe Ponders Resolutions; Submits Advise to Frosh,” Utah Chronicle, January 9, 1941, 5.

Elaine Anderson, “Campus Ramblings,” Utah Chronicle, January 16, 1941, 5.

“Television for Teen-Agers” The Bulletin, October 7, 1949, 3.

Elaine Cannon dies at age 81,” Church News, May 22, 2003.

Woodger, Mary Jane. “Elaine Anderson Cannon, Young Women General President: Innovations, Inspiration, and Implementations,” Journal of Mormon History 40, no. 4 (Fall 2014): 171-207.

Image Sources

“Group at Dine A Ville Motel,” Vernal Express, June 25, 1964.

Cannon, Elaine. Adversity. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, 1987.

Elaine Anderson, “College Transfers Give Opinions on U. of U.,” Utah Chronicle, October 10, 1940, 5.

“Television for Teen-Agers,” Bulletin, October 7, 1949, 3.

WAVES and SPARS: Women go to War in 1943

By Matt McPherson

At the height of the second World War, university students across the nation were forced to withdraw from school and join military forces. First the men, but with a high demand, women also became part of the war’s history. Women not only entered the workforce, but they broke gender barriers by joining military forces. In 1943 President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) and the SPARS (United States Coast Guard Women’s Reserve). Historian Roger D. Launius discussed women’s impact on the war saying, “Not only did women enter the workforce in a big way, but many of the other traditional sexual boundaries were eroded by the war.”

Screen Shot 2018-11-26 at 11.36.37 AMAs reported by the Salt Lake Telegram on Tuesday, January 11, 1943, Lieutenant Tova L. Petersen, a recruitment officer for the WAVES and SPARS, arrived in Salt Lake City to interview applicants. Just one month later the first Utah women would enlist in the military.

The Utah Chronicle reported on February 25, 1943, that twelve women from the University of Utah were assigned and enlisted to make up Utah’s first contingent of the WAVES and SPARS by the Navy Recruiting Station in Salt Lake City. In order to enlist, women had to be between the ages of 20 and 36, some schooling was required, and they could not be married to a man in the same military branch. The women had to complete four months of training of which nine participants were WAVES and three were SPARS. Following their training, they were assigned to active duty around the United States, or sent to schools for “technical training by Navy experts.” Utah continued to enlist women to reach a quota; to do so, the naval officer from San Francisco remained in Salt Lake City to approve applications.

A brochure titled Facts About the WAVES and SPARS addressed the importance of women joining the armed forces. The author wrote, “Never in history has there been such an urgent need for American women to serve their country. This is total war — a war in which every woman as well as every man must play a part.” The brochure gave complete instructions on how and where to apply, what living situations would be like, and the basic requirements to enlist as WAVES or SPARS.

On March 19, 1943, the Sugar House Bulletin shared an image with a brief description of women in training, titled, “Future WAACS, WAVES, SPARS Start Training.” The trainees are shown doing jumping exercises on a springboard.

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On March 8, 1943, The Utah Chronicle published a letter from Florence Henrichsen, a WAVES member and former University of Utah student. Henrichsen wrote from Massachusetts to her sister and told her of her daily life. There was no more staying up late and no more everyday clothing, which she referred to as “civies” — only uniforms were allowed now. Henrichsen did not express any resentment for her decision and seemed quite happy. She wrote of her meals and the training she partook in. She ended the letter to her sister with a little encouragement: “Come and be a WAVE with me – you would love it.”

Reporting for KSL in August 2014, Peter Rosen shared the story of Utah’s own Kathryn Klaveano who served in the Navy WAVES. Klaveano wanted to be a part of the action. She is quoted as saying, “I told them I will go AWOL before I would be a secretary.” And she was more than that. Klaveano was a flight orderly on domestic military flights “from Newfoundland to Miami and to Hawaii.” Another Utah woman, Ora Mae Hyatt, actually served outside of the U.S. and made her way to Okinawa. Unconcerned with her surroundings, Hyatt said, “We were young. We didn’t dwell on the danger we were in.” (Rosen)

World War II brought an urgency upon the United States and called for young men and woman to help fight. President Roosevelt’s establishment of WAVES and SPARS gave women the opportunity to join the war effort. In February 1943 the first twelve Utah women were given the chance to help shape America’s future military and they did just that.

Matt McPherson graduated from The University of Utah in December 2018 with a Bachelor of Science in Communication.

Sources

“Future WAACS, WAVES, SPARS Start Training,” Sugar House Bulletin, March 19, 1943, 3.

“From Former U Coed—Now WAVE,” Utah Chronicle, March 8, 1943, 3.

“First WAVE, SPAR Unit Accepted,” Utah Chronicle, February 25, 1943, 3.

“Women Wanted in WAVES, SPARS,” Salt Lake Telegram, January 11, 1943, 18.

Advertisement/image of U.S. Army announcement, Utah Chronicle, January 14, 1943, 2.

Facts About the WAVES and SPARS,” n.p., 1943.

Rosen, Peter. “Utah Woman at War: Stories of Service in WWII,” KSL, August 28, 2014.

Launius, Roger, D. “World War II in Utah,” Utah History to Go.

 

Images provided by J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah

Salt Lake City Dance and Music: Rainbow Randevu

By Kendra A. Madsen

The Rainbow Randevu was one of the larger music revenues in northern Utah. The dance club previously located at 460 S. Main Street was a popular spot for larger band performers to visit from the 1930s to the 1960s. (Stewart, p. 221) Like many of the popular spots in historic Salt Lake City, the Rainbow Randevu played a large role in the music culture in northern Utah. The ballroom also gave generations of young people a fun place to gather, especially during times of hardship, such as World War II.

Rainbow Randevu ad_1937-09-10_Salt-Lake-Telegram

The September 10, 1937, ad that appeared in The Salt Lake Telegram.

The Rainbow Randevu, previously known as the Rainbow Ballroom, opened for dining and dancing the week of September 10, 1937, according to an advertisement in The Salt Lake Telegram published the same date. The Rainbow Randevu was a popular spot for University of Utah students who were looking to escape their school responsibilities for the weekend. Wilkins and Williams wrote in 1944 that students who were either leaving to fight in the war or had returned from the war would meet at the dance club to enjoy each other’s company.

The Salt Lake Telegram wrote in July 1943 that Louis Armstrong performed at the Rainbow Randevu with other swing performers. Jerry Jones, the manager of the Rainbow Randevu, would often perform with his own orchestra at the Rainbow, and over the years many big-name artists would come to perform at the club. (Raff)

Fire-razes-rainbow-randevu_1948-05-22_Salt-Lake-TelegramIn May 1948, The Salt Lake Telegram wrote that a large fire consumed the Rainbow Randevu, completely destroying the building other than the four outer walls. Officials suspected the cause of the fire to be a cigarette. Days before the fire, the Rainbow Randevu had held an inspection and received approval of its wiring, heating and other equipment in the building. Raff wrote that the fire began with three explosions at 3:45 a.m. Saturday, only two hours after the Friday night performance by the Ink Spots band that was attended by 1,132 dancers had ended. While the firefighters were battling to save the Rainbow, they realized there was no hope for the venue and worked to save the surrounding businesses on the block. Witnesses claimed the flames reached 200 feet in the air at the height of the fire, which left the building as “a mass of twisted steel and charred wood.” (Raff)

In October 1948, manager Jerry Jones chose a new site for the Rainbow Randevu. The Salt Lake Telegram reported that the Coconut Grove would be remodeled to become the new Rainbow site. The renovations included adding 250 booths, a new bandstand, two fountains, a TV room, and a new entrance. Jones said the building would have drapery installed in order to close off certain sections of the ballroom making renovations during the day possible while the venue was open in the evenings.

The music culture in Salt Lake City was fostered by the music venues such as the Rainbow Randevu. (Stewart, p. 221) This was a popular hub for University students and Salt Lakers alike to dance and listen to artists. The venue allowed artists from all over to meet at this cross-road town of the West and try out their music on the attendees of the club. Such cultural spots were the go-to place for many young people at the time and show the importance of having venues where the arts can be celebrated.

Kendra A. Madsen is a communication major at the University of Utah and will be graduating in May 2019.

Sources

 Advertisement, Rainbow Randevu, Salt Lake Telegram, September 10, 1937, 12.

“Rainbow Randevu Adds New Musician,” Salt Lake Telegram, March 26, 1938, 7.

“Louis Armstrong to Appear at Randevu,” Salt Lake Telegram, July 14, 1943, 15.

Pat Wilkins and Norma Williams, “Full Weekend Keeps Utes Busy . . . Playing,” Utah Chronicle, October 26, 1944, 3.

Colin Raff, “Fire Razes Rainbow Randevu,” Salt Lake Telegram, May 22, 1948, 1.

“New Site Set for ‘Randevu,’” Salt Lake Telegram, October 5, 1948, 24.

Stewart, Polly. “Urban Pioneers: The Folk-Music Revival in Utah, 1959-1966,” Utah Historical Quarterly 74, no. 3 (2006): 220-230.

They Paved the Rainbow

By Carley Longhurst

In Joni Mitchell’s hit song “Big Yellow Taxi,” she sings the iconic lyrics, “they paved paradise and put up a parking lot.” These two lines became the story of a building with one of the richest histories in Salt Lake City, Utah.

Rainbow Randevu OutsideBuilt in 1922, the Covey-Ballard Motor Company stood between 400 and 500 South on Main Street in downtown Salt Lake City until 1931, when it was transformed into the Coconut Grove. According to Lagoon history, the ballroom was advertised as the largest in the United States. Sometime during the 1940s, the Coconut Grove was changed to the Rainbow Ballroom. Jerry Jones assumed ownership in 1946 and renamed it Rainbow Randevu. Its popularity continued as the community continued to fill the hall. In 1958 Lagoon bought and named it Danceland. A few years later, the company settled on its final name, The Terrace. Lagoon History shares that a final New Year’s Eve party was thrown in 1981 before The Terrace permanently closed. In August 1987 a fire demolished the building and “they paved paradise and put up a parking lot.” (Braden)

Every city has certain places that give them their own identity. Between 1931 and 1981, Salt Lake City had a hotspot that almost every young adult would flock to. Many knew this venue as the Coconut Grove, others as the Rainbow Ballroom, Rainbow Randevu, Danceland, The Terrace, or even The Terrace Ballroom. In the late 1950s Budge and Jeannene Hyde referred to it as the Rainbow, saying in an interview that they congregated there every Saturday night with groups of friends. With World War II recently concluded and political unrest sweeping the world, it was a refuge from reality.

The venue had a life where the musical notes of Nat (King) Cole and Led Zeppelin, among so many other incredible musicians, seeped into its walls and no one wanted to miss the chance to be there. (“Danceland Sets Cole”) The Rainbow felt the vibrations of twirling and dancing to Andy Kirk and his Clouds of Joy not long after the Salt Lake Telegram announced in February 1941 that they were coming all the way from New York. Advertisements were scattered through the Utah Chronicle to inform students what big names were coming, just like the one in March 1941 telling how Carl Ravazza was to play at the Randevu.

Rainbow Randevu FireIn May 1948, The Salt Lake Telegram reported the fire that turned Rainbow Randevu “to a mass of twisted steel and charred wood” in the middle of the night. (Raff) Firemen searched, but only found a cigarette as the reason only four walls of the Rainbow were left standing. Covered by insurance, a seemingly positive Jerry Jones wanted to rebuild “as soon as possible.” The Rainbow would reopen to renewed popularity.

After staving off The Terrace lease from Little America Corp, The Deseret News reported in December 1981 of the final three events before the hall closed indefinitely. A concert by The David LaFlemme Band took place, along with the regular Tuesday night dance and a last New Year’s Eve party. Lots of work was needed to meet city fire and public safety codes, and a Little America spokesman announced the hall would remain unused until a use was decided (An Era Ends).

Terrace Ballroom InsideAlready partially torn down, The Terrace couldn’t disappear without a bang. In August 1987, The Deseret News wrote how it took 30 minutes for a fire to demolish a building that was so beloved by a community forever.

Joni Mitchell never performed at The Terrace, but the hall has an undeniable connection to her song “Big Yellow Taxi.” The building with such a rich history that saw so much and could give a look into the lives of several generations is now a parking lot. The Rainbow Randevu left an unforgettable stamp on those who were able to experience its magic and it’s seen within articles written in newspapers.

Carley Longhurst is a senior at The University of Utah, majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism. She will be graduating in the spring of 2019.

Sources

“Randevu Bills Kirk Group,” Salt Lake Telegram, February 28, 1941, 20.

Advertisement for Jerry Jones Rainbow, Utah Chronicle, March 6, 1941, 5.

Collin Raff, “Fire Razes Rainbow Randevu,” Salt Lake Telegram, May 22, 1948, 1.

“Danceland Sets Cole,” Deseret News, February 12, 1959, 13.

An Era Ends as S.L.’s Premier Dance Hall Closes,” Deseret News, December 26, 1981, 6A.

Pierce, Scott D. and Twila Van Leer, “Flames Become Last Dancers at the Terrace,” Deseret News, August 6, 1987, 35.

Interview with Budge and Jeannene Hyde, December 1, 2018, author’s collection.

Smart, Christopher. “Whatever Happened to … The Terrace Ballroom?” The Salt Lake Tribune, March 12, 2015.

Braden [no last name], “The Terrace,” Lagoon History Project.

Williams, Carter. “Looking Back at Utah Music and Dance Venues That No Longer Exist,” KSL.com, September 15, 2016.

McCormick, John S. The Gathering Place: An Illustrated History of Salt Lake City. Salt Lake City, UT: Signature Books, 2000.

 

 

Wanted: Airline Stewardesses for United Airlines

By Stella Lee

United Airlines was looking for young women with an interest in flying the nation’s airways as a stewardess, according to an advertisement published in The Utah Chronicle on January 10, 1946. There were some qualifications that applicants needed to meet. The women had to be between 21 and 26 years of age, stand between 5’2” and 5’6”, weigh no more than 125 pounds, be unmarried and in good health, have good vision, be a United States citizen, and have completed two years of college or be a registered nurse. The title of stewardess, or flight attendant, is a job aimed at airplane passengers’ comfort and safety. In the middle of the 1900s, people preferred the description flight attendant rather than stewardess because the latter had a negative connotation and meant “flying waitresses.” (Bean-Mellinger)

UAL

Photo by Shipler Studio. Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

The first flight attendant had appeared when passenger air travel began in the early 1920s. At the beginning, they were generally the sons of businessmen who had financed the airlines. However, as airplanes became public transportation, airlines needed official employees as flight attendants for passenger safety and service. Ellen Church, who was the first female stewardess hired in 1930 by United Airlines, opened the door for women stewardesses even though the atmosphere in 1930 was not favorable for women flight attendants because the ability of women was always in question. (Latson)

However, working as a stewardess—despite the pay, prestige, and adventure—was actually not as great as it seemed because the women were strictly controlled. (Harris) For example, they were not allowed to marry and most airlines had strict criteria for their height, weight and appearance. Victoria Vantoch, author of The Jet Sex: Airline Stewardesses and the Making of an American Icon, writes that applicants had to meet draconian airline beauty requirements, which embodied America’s mainstream ideal of beauty.

airline

Group photo of airline employees at the Salt Lake City Airport. Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

This naturally led to beauty-based gender inequality, sexism and increased gender bias. Some stewardesses were not hired, even when their ability was outstanding, due to appearance. Airlines also discriminated against Black women. Ruth Carol Taylor, a journalist and registered nurse, broke the color barrier in 1957 after filing suit against Trans World Airline. (Van Houten)

Fifteen years later, two White Eastern Airlines flight attendants took the company to court on charges of discriminatory weight and grooming regulations. The organization Stewardesses for Women’s Rights was subsequently founded to address gender discrimination and advocated for reform until 1976.

Due to these efforts, problems with gender-based inequality were moderated and regulations were put in place. Nowadays, gender bias for flight attendants is mostly resolved, but society still requires our attention.

Stella Lee graduated in December 2018 with a Bachelor of Science in Strategic Communication from the University of Utah.

 Sources

Advertisement for United Airlines stewardesses, Utah Chronicle, January 10, 1946, 3.

Latson, Jennifer. “Hired for Their Looks, Promoted for Their Heroism: The First Flight Attendants,” Time, May 15, 2015.

Harris, Tom. “How Airline Crews Work,” HowStuffWorks.com.

Bean-Mellinger, Barbara. “What Is the Difference Between a Stewardess and a Flight Attendant?” Chron.com, June 29, 2018.

Van Houten, Matt. “Taylor, Ruth Carol,” BlackPast.org.

“Women in the Skies: The birth of the Stewardess”,Ms.blog, September 16, 2014. 1-2

Vantoch, Victoria. The Jet Sex: Airline Stewardesses and the Making of an American Icon. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.

 

The Life of a Japanese-American Artist in the Topaz Internment Camp in 1940s Utah

By Sayaka Kochi

Following the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Imperial Japanese Navy on December 7, 1941, an estimated 120,000 American citizens were forced into isolated camps because of their Japanese ancestry. Their ethnicity separated Japanese-Americans living in the United States from white culture, and racism took away their human rights. Additionally, many were placed in camps under the false pretense of giving them safe places to live at that time.

topaz

Photo of the Central Utah Relocation Center, better known as Topaz. Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

One of these internment camps was located in central Utah; the camp, Topaz, was named after a nearby mountain. Chiura Obata, a Japanese-American artist and former professor at the University of California, Berkeley, was one of those who were sent to Topaz. According to Sandra C. Taylor, Obata was “a sensitive, political aware man” who continued his art activities in the Topaz art school while teaching painting to Topaz internees with a hope of raising people’s spirits in the camp. (Taylor, p. 73)

Obata has been a widely recognized Nikkei artist (Japanese word for emigrants and descendants) since before the abandonment of his life in California. On March 11, 1928, the Oakland Tribune reported Obata’s art exhibition in the East-West Gallery of Fine Arts in San Francisco. His artworks had a variety, and every piece of his work expressed his appreciation of art.

Obata was not merely a well-known artist but also a student-oriented teacher. According to the California Magazine published on March 15, 2016, Obata held his last painting demonstration combined with an art sale for “any art student, regardless of race or creed” before he moved into the camp. In April 1942, Obata closed his art studio due to a relocation to the camp, and along with it, he sold his masterpieces, raised money, and donated all earnings into the establishment of a scholarship for students in the University of California.

His enthusiasm for the arts did not decline but grow, even after he was forced to relocate and was imprisoned in the middle of the desert. The Utah Nippo reported on January 25, 1943, that the eighth governor of Utah, Herbert B. Maw, was presented with the scenery painting of Topaz by Obata in the induction ceremony of the new councilmen of the Topaz community government in the Central Utah Relocation Center. Furthermore, the article of the Utah Nippo published in January 1943 announced that Obata’s silk paintings were sent to President Roosevelt as a gift. Even though Obata was interned during World War II, his artistic talent was never oppressed.

Arts_taught_by_Chiura-1

Two of the watercolor paintings produced by the students taught by Chiura Obata in Topaz. 
Park Record, March 12, 2011.

In 1945, with the end of the bloody chaos across the world, Obata was released and allowed to return to his beloved old home. Soon after he returned to the campus of the University of California as an art professor, three water paintings drawn by Obata, while he was interned in Topaz, were exhibited in the University of Utah. This University of Utah Japanese art exhibition sponsored by the War Relocation Authority was reported by the Utah Chronicle on November 15.

Obata left his teaching job in 1954. Upon his retirement, he got word from Clark Kerr, the first Chancellor of the University of California, who said, “You have been able not only to exercise your own creative gifts to the fullest extent, but also to help develop and guide the talent of students. In addition, your exhibits, lectures and demonstrations have given pleasure and instruction to countless people throughout California and in many parts of the United States.” (In Memoriam, p. 137)

In the midst of turbulent times, Obata was acknowledged to be one of the best artists in spite of his Japanese ancestry. His dedication to arts and his contribution of teaching arts have been outstanding, even now. At the Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Obata’s new exhibition named “Chiura Obata: An American Modern” was held in 2018. Through his experiences under the restraint and the patience, he created the arts which carry the strong message: “Who gets to be called American?” (Mann) This message can be sympathetic and relevant with today’s society as well.

Sayaka Kochi is a senior at the University of Utah. She is majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism.

Sources

“Chiura Obata, Art: Berkeley,” University of California: In Memoriam (September 1978): 137

Cirrus Wood, “Artist Interned: A Berkeley Legend Found Beauty in “Enormous Bleakness of War Camp,” California Magazine, March 15, 2016.

Court Mann, “UMFA’s new Chiura Obata exhibit asks: ‘Who gets to be called American?’” Deseret News, June 1, 2018.

“Governor Maw Visits Topaz,” Utah Nippo, January 25, 1943, 4.

Hal Johnson, “So We’re Told,” Berkeley Daily Gazette, April 20, 1942, 6.

“Jap Internees’ Art Displayed,” Utah Chronicle, November 15, 1945, 1.

“Pres. Roosevelt to Be Presented Silk Paintings,” Utah Nippo, January 15, 1943, 4.

Taylor, Sandra C. “Book Reviews of Topaz Moon: Chiura Obata’s Art of the Internment,” Utah Historical Quarterly 69, no. 1-4 (2001): 72-73.