Debate Continues Over the Use of Ute Mascot

By Jacob Rueda

The term “Ute” has become synonymous with the University of Utah. Names such as “Utes,” “redskins,” and “redskin braves” have been associated with the university sports teams in some manner or another. Most of those names have been dropped except for “Ute,” a name that is almost always associated with football.

In reality, the actual Utes are barely recognized by students and fans of the university’s sports teams alike. The tribe itself struggles to find acknowledgement in a world that cares more about use than consequence.

The University of Utah was established in 1850. It started using the Ute identity beginning in the 1920s, according to Utes Nickname Project website. The school received permission to use the “Ute” identity from one of the three recognized Ute Tribes, the Northern Ute Nation.

The other two nations, the Southern Ute and the Ute Mountain Tribes, did not grant permission to the school to use their name.

The Ute tribe has inhabited the area for over ten thousand years. The university has made efforts throughout its history to bridge relations with the Ute Tribe, albeit somewhat clumsily at times.

The Daily Utah Chronicle reported in October 1951 that the U.S. Supreme Court awarded $17,000,000 (equal to $167,880,884.62 in 2019 money) in an effort to appease the Uintah-Ouray reservation and for “furthering educational standards of the people.” Eleven young people between the ages of 17 and 19 were selected and interviewed for acceptance into the university.

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“Hoyo” first appeared as the University of Utah mascot in 1947. Used with permission from Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

At the time the university used a mascot called Hoyo, a cartoonish Native American child. The Chronicle absent-mindedly reported in that issue that the acceptance of native peoples at the university meant Hoyo “will at last have some country cousins on campus to urge him on to greater activity.”

Letters to the Editor in an April 1970 issue of the Chronicle acknowledged the “Ute” identity as a sign of strength, vitality, and “a source of pride.” While other students found the university’s mascots racist, others believed those who found them offensive were reading too much into things.

In April 1972, the issue was addressed again in the Chronicle. The concern over the use of native people’s image in college sports was growing nationwide. According to the article, tribes were suing universities for appropriating names and images alike.

There was some reconciliation later on, at least from the Chronicle itself. In 1987, the paper decided to distinguish when it referred to the Ute Tribe and when it referred to the school by using quotations marks when referencing the school. That practice has since been abandoned.

April 2014 saw the University of Utah signing a Memorandum of Understanding with the Ute Tribe. The memorandum is a five-year agreement where the university is allowed to use the name of the tribe on a conditional basis.

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The image of “Hoyo” was ubiquitous, especially in school announcements and calendars. Used with permission from Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Among the conditions, the university is to include in its campus programs a member of the tribe who was not a student. The purpose of that is to “enhance Native American perspectives,” writes author Larry Gerlach in the summer 2017 issue of the Utah Historical Quarterly.

Other conditions to use the name include a tribe-approved Native American advisor, a special advisor to Native American affairs, a full-time advisor on the reservation for high school students to attend college, and financial aid and scholarships for Native American students.

The debate over the name came up once more in the Chronicle on August 2016. This time, it was about doing away with the “Ute” nickname altogether. The article deemed the nickname “culturally insensitive” when referring to the school. Two sides, one for and one against, argued their points much like Letters to the Editor did 46 years earlier.

The Chronicle reported in September 2019 efforts by the Housing and Residential Office and Social Justice Advocates to educate dorm residents and advisors on moving away from using familiar symbols and replacing them. They also suggested using the phrase “Go Utah” instead of “Go Utes.” To date, none of these transitions have been implemented.

According to Gerlach in his article for the Quarterly, the National Collegiate Athletic Association declared that starting February 1, 2006, “institutions with hostile or abusive racial/ethnic/national origin mascots, nicknames or imagery” were prohibited from hosting championship games or displaying their mascots in jerseys and uniforms during championship tournaments.

Despite these regulations, the University of Utah was permitted to keep the classic drum and feather logo. Students at the school continue to debate its use.

Controversy surrounding the use of Native American symbols and names has plagued professional, high school and college teams alike. For example, the Washington Redskins continue to stir up controversy with their name and logo.

The situation with the Redskins is similar to that of the University of Utah with the drum and feather logo and the name “Utes.” Most fans support the team name and logo while others support changing the name and image of the teams altogether.

The situation got more complicated in Cedar High School in Cedar City, a small town in the southwestern corner of Utah. The mascot “Redman” had started to raise the ire of some members of the Paiute community.

In a Salt Lake Tribune article from January 2019, various members of the Paiute community expressed personal conflict when it came to supporting the mascot for Cedar High School. Opinions were split; some supported it while others didn’t. The support came at a price for some and questioned whether such support was warranted in the face of communal backlash.

Since that time, the school opted to change the mascot. Google docs published in the school’s website say a committee of “students, faculty, staff, and alumni” moved forward with changing the identity and mascot of the school. They are now known as “Reds” and the mascot is a wolf.

Unlike Cedar High School, the University of Utah does not have even a sizeable population of Native peoples. Therefore, it cannot and likely will not form any sort of committee with the kind of influence that impacted Cedar High School to evolve away from its former mascot.

Also, changing mascots for the university will not have the same significance as it did for Cedar High School. A school with a high non-native population that moves from using a Native American symbol cannot appreciate the significance of that like a school with a high Native American population.

Regardless, there is still a strong sense of pride for fans who identify as “Utes.” It has not waned in the slightest despite objections from individuals who feel the identity of “Utes” should not be commercialized or casually used.

Despite the clamor to respect Native Americans and protect the image of the Ute Tribe, statistics from the Office of Budget and Institutional Analysis at the university say Native Americans accounted for 0% of first time freshmen, undergraduate or graduate students in 2018.

To date, there has been no inquiry on the tribe’s views of the name or how their image is appropriated and used by the University of Utah today.

Since the Memorandum of Understanding between the school and the Ute Mountain Tribe in 2014, there have been no formal documented objections from either side over the agreement.

How the Utes intend to proceed with their relationship with the university after all that has transpired remains to be seen.

Jacob Rueda is a junior majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism at the University of Utah.

Primary Sources

Connor Richards, “Debate: Should Utah Ditch The ‘Ute’ Nickname?” The Daily Utah Chronicle, August 29, 2016.

Indian Youths Enter U on Tribal Grant,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 9, 1951, 1.

Craig Glover, “Letters to the Editor: Seriously?,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, April 24, 1970, 1.

Indians See Red, Hide Skins to Ute,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, April 19, 1972, 2.

Memorandum of Understanding between the Ute Indian Tribe and the University of Utah,” April 2014.

Martin Raybould, “Letters: Bring ‘Ute’ Back into Football,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 13, 1984.

Natalie Colby, “Appropriation or Appreciation? Social Justice Advocates Host ‘Utah Fan Am I,’” The Daily Utah Chronicle, September 26, 2019.

New Policy Distinguishes ‘Utes,’” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 1, 1987.

Erin Alberty, “Is a ‘Redmen’ mascot racist or does it honor Native Americans? The debate is dividing a southern Utah town,” The Salt Lake Tribune, January 13, 2019.

The Utes Nickname Project, Communication Institute, The University of Utah.

Secondary Source

Gerlach, Larry R. “Appropriation and Accommodation: The University of Utah and the Utes.” Utah Historical Quarterly 85, no.3 (Summer 2017): 204-223.

Neal A. Maxwell, Hays Gorey, and William B. Smart on Freedom of the Press in 1962

By Ann Reich

Freedom of the press has been under fire since it was included in the First Amendment. Even today, ethical questions arise around the country concerning the right to release information. In critical moments news organizations have to weigh the consequences before publishing sensitive material.

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Neal A. Maxwell, as pictured in The Daily Utah Chronicle on January 17, 1962.

The early 1960s were a time of tumult for the United States. The country was in the midst of an indefinite cold war and problems with Cuba were heating up. In April of 1961 the Bay of Pigs invasion during President Kennedy’s term was a failure, and the press released information about the defeat. (history.com) On January 17, 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle in the article, “Press Freedom’s Future,” said, “Presently the threat by the communist nations to the United States has again caused people to challenge freedom of the press.” It was a crucial time in history for the press, and freedom of the press was a significant topic in the journalism community.

On January 17, 1962, The University of Utah held a Great Issues Forum. At this event Neal A. Maxwell, the assistant to President A. Ray Olpin, discussed an essay he wrote titled, “Is Freedom of the Press Compatible with National Security?” After Maxwell, Hays Gorey, Salt Lake Tribune editor, and William B. Smart, head of the Deseret News editorial page, spoke on the same topic. (The Daily Utah Chronicle, p. 1)

In his essay, Maxwell analyzed the government’s relationship with the press, and his thoughts on a free press. Many times throughout history, the U.S. government has made a pact with the press to suspend fighting until a war or dangerous time is over. Maxwell argued that the Cold War was different and this suspension agreement could not be made. There was no end in sight during the Cold War, and the people needed information. (Maxwell, p. 46)

Maxwell argued that national security, especially with the military, was better with a free press. If the people know about the strengths, weaknesses, and plans in the military, then the executive branch would be presented with more choices regarding taking action. (Maxwell, p. 50)

Hays Gorey

Hays Gorey, a University of Utah alumnus, was pictured in The Daily Utah Chronicle on January 17, 1962.

Hays Gorey responded to Maxwell’s article. Gorey’s view agreed with Maxwell’s and he said that if the U.S. had no free press then it “would not be America at all.” (Gorey, p. 54) However, the press could cause some short-term harm to national security, but it is never lasting. While reporting on the mistakes of the U.S. could make the country weak in the moment, it would strengthen the country in the long run. The government would learn from their mistakes and would be less likely to repeat history if it was all documented by the press. Gorey was overall concerned with the government lasting. Free press might hurt the current government, but it has a more positive long-term outcome.

William B. Smart also wrote a response. Much of what he said aligned with Maxwell and Gorey: the free press had done well to protect national security. At the time of this speech, the country was in the midst of fighting communism. Smart mentioned President Kennedy’s fear of becoming like the enemy the country was fighting. The free press keeps the U.S. a democracy and stays away from too many governmental censorship.

William B. Smart

William B. Smart, pictured in The Daily Utah Chronicle on January 17, 1962, was head of the Deseret News editorial page.

Another important topic discussed was the fear caused by the press. Gorey claimed that it is better to know all of the horrifying events happening, then to be left afraid in the unknown. Maxwell brought up fear as a reason the government may push against the free press. However, Smart disagreed. In his comments he mentioned that the American citizens were “far more tough-minded” than what Maxwell implied. (Smart, p. 58)

Even though many events in the 1960s were mentioned by these speakers, their comments have been relevant throughout history. The Washington Post stated, “governments around the world are becoming more sophisticated in their efforts to censor expression.” (Rezaian) An increase in press censorship is largely due to the internet’s role in spreading information. Although the government will always attempt censorship in the interest of national security, freedom of the press will always be necessary.

Ann Reich is a senior at the University of Utah. Her major is communication with an emphasis in journalism.

Primary Sources

Neal A. Maxwell, “Is Freedom of the Press Compatible With National Security?” in Great Issues Concerning Freedom, ed. Waldemer P. Read (Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1962), 41-54.

Hays Gorey, “Comments” in Great Issues Concerning Freedom, ed. Waldemer P. Read (Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1962), 54-57.

William B. Smart, “Comments” in Great Issues Concerning Freedom, ed. Waldemer P. Read (Salt Lake City: University of Utah, 1962), 57-60.

“Press Security To Theme Great Issues,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 16, 1962, 1.

Jackie Back, “Maxwell, Newsmen Set Examination Of Press,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 17, 1962, 1.

“Press Freedom’s Future,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 17, 1962, 2.

“Great Issues Airs Free Press In U.S.,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 18, 1962, 1.

“Vice President of U. Links Press Freedom, Security,” The Salt Lake Tribune, January 18, 1962, 24.

Secondary Sources

Editors, “Cuban Missile Crisis,” History.com.

Rezaian, Jason. “Dictators and the Internet: A Love Story,” The Washington Post, September 10, 2019.

 

Billy “The Hill” McGill: Utah’s Elite Center 1959-1962

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Billy McGill holds up the No. 1 and a basketball in anticipation of the 1962 NBA Draft. Used with permission from Utah State History.

By Brayden Ramsay

Billy “The Hill” McGill was the University of Utah’s first college basketball player to be drafted as the No. 1 pick overall in the NBA draft, and the eighth African-American athlete taken No. 1 overall in NBA draft history. (Witucki) McGill was a phenom while at Utah (1959-1962), scorching the stat sheet and leading the Utes to a final four appearance. McGill’s time at Utah was glamorous as he topped national sports headlines and was widely known as one of the top college basketball players in the 1960s. After a short stint in the NBA, McGill left the league and soon found himself homeless. He would regret not getting his degree from the University of Utah up until he died in 2014. (Goon) Unfortunately, this scenario is all too familiar to college athletes across the United States of America. (Welch) Especially when it comes to basketball and football players.

Billy “The Hill” McGill was a six-foot nine-inch center from Los Angeles, California. McGill was someone who showed lots of potential in high school and eventually decided to attend the University of Utah for his college athletics career. McGill was a standout for the Utes in his freshman and sophomore seasons but was still a talent with lots of potential yet to be uncovered. After flashes of bright spots throughout his first seasons at Utah, McGill burst onto the scene in 1961 showing the world that he was a force to be reckoned with.

Expectations were sky high heading into the 1961 season as Billy “The Hill” McGill was heading into his final year as a Ute. In January of 1961, The Daily Utah Chronicle reported that Head Coach Jack Gardner said Billy McGill was among the best in basketball. Gardner wasn’t the only person to take note though, as national news outlets and NBA teams were also noticing. Teams and fans were going to have their eyes on McGill during the season, not only for his dominating performances, but also for school records that people were excited for McGill to break.

The upper classmen took on the lower classmen in the University of Utah’s annual red vs white game in November of 1961. This may have been an exhibition game, but this is where fans were able to get their first glance at what McGill could become through the 1961 season. The Daily Utah Chronicle writer Joe Ribotto brought McGill’s 50-point effort to life as the Utes created opportunities for him to showcase his skill in the teams opening matchup. McGill also showcased his rebounding skills with 26 on the night.

Utah’s big man was just getting started. Throughout the 1961-1962 season, McGill would continue to have monumental games and inch his way closer to the University of Utah’s record books.

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Billy McGill looks to score a basket during a photoshoot with the Salt Lake Tribune in 1961. Used with permission from Utah State History.

McGill’s most famous game as a Runnin’ Ute came when his team needed it most, scoring 60-points in an effort against in-state rival BYU. In February of 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle writer Dave Smith described McGill’s performance as “blistering” as he scored 19-points in the final 12 minutes of play to lead the Utes to a 106-101 victory.

Astronomical scoring games seemed to come easily for McGill, especially in crucial games. In March 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle writer Norm Sheya put an emphasis on the importance of McGill’s 50-point performance that solidified the Skyline Conference Championship for the University of Utah. He would lead the Utes in scoring during Utah’s 19 point victory over Wyoming. This conference championship would allow a spot for the Utes in postseason play.

In his final year at Utah, McGill not only broke records. He shattered them. In March 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle writer Dave Smith expounded on the records that McGill set during his time at the University of Utah. This list included most field goals made, best field percentage, most total points, and most points per game average.

McGill would find his name at the top of many NBA teams wish lists towards the end of his senior season. When draft night finally rolled around, his name was the first one called. In May 1962, The Daily Utah Chronicle writer Ernie Witucki was among the first to report that McGill had been selected as the number one overall pick in the NBA draft by Chicago. The signing of the contract would bring a close to a career where McGill scored over 2,000 points as a Ute and held almost every basketball record in the Skyline Conference.

The top of the mountain had finally been reached, and McGill accomplished what he had originally set out to do. Becoming the top draft pick and starting an NBA career is what most athletes could only dream of. It had now become a reality for the kid from Los Angeles. Sometimes though, dreams don’t always turn out as planned.

McGill’s life in the NBA started off well, signing a two-year contract to play for Chicago. He would eventually be traded to the New York Knicks where he would make a few appearances before being traded to the St. Louis Hawks which eventually led to the Los Angeles Lakers.

Although McGill was once the top pick in the NBA Draft, he struggled to find a team that would sign him for more than a few seasons at a time. The ABA would come calling in his final two years as a pro before McGill decided to retire. In February 2011, The Los Angeles Times writer Jerry Crowe wrote a story on how McGill had really struggled since leaving the University of Utah for the NBA. He didn’t have a degree, and when the NBA didn’t go as planned, he became homeless and had a difficult time finding somewhere to land on his feet.

This is an all-too-familiar story to many college athletes who leave school early to take their shot at professional sports. In 1999, Welch Suggs of the Chronicle of Higher Education did a study on graduation rates of college athletes. Suggs found that men and women who played basketball and football had the lowest graduation rate of other collegiate sports. Something that the NCAA requires is for college athletes to take part in one season of collegiate athletics before entering the NBA draft. Unfortunately, this means that kids go to college without the mentality to graduate before moving on to professional athletics. Instead, they attend college and get by in order to enter the NBA draft as quickly as possible.

Billy McGill died in Salt Lake City in July 2014. He was 74 years old. The Salt Lake Tribune writer Kyle Goon paid tribute to McGill after the basketball star’s death by talking to his former teammates. One teammate, Jerry Pimm, described McGill as “one of the greatest players I’ve seen or been associated with.” McGill is survived by his wife, Gwen, and his grandson, Ryan Watkins.

The tragedy of Billy “The Hill” McGill shows the importance of getting a college degree before looking for professional work. It’s always important to have a backup plan in place for any profession, but especially if the route of professional sports is taken. Injury, performance issues, and failing expectations are among the many reasons why professional sports have a high chance of not working out. Before college athletes take off for greener pastures, they should consider getting their degrees so that just in case things don’t work out, a backup plan is in place.

Brayden Ramsay graduated from the University of Utah in December 2019 after majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism. He was on the sports desk at the Daily Utah Chronicle and plans to continue his education by earning a master’s degree in sports management.

Primary Sources

Jack Gardner: ‘McGill is Basketball’s Best.’” The Daily Utah Chronicle, January 26, 1961, 4.

Joe Ribotto, “McGill Tanks 50 Points As Utes Whip Frosh 150-126,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 28, 1961, 4.

Dave Smith, “McGill Scores Sixty for Conference Mark,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, February 26, 1962, 4.

Dave Smith, “Utah’s Record Smasher Faces Final Battle,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, March 2, 1962, 5.

Norm Sheya, “Utes, McGill Leave Skyline with Victory,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, March 5, 1962, 1.

Ernie Witucki, “It’s Settled — McGill Signs Chicago Packer Contract,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, May 15, 1962, 4.

Secondary Sources

Suggs, Welch. “Graduation Rates Hit Lowest Level in 7 Years for Athletes in Football and Basketball.” Chronicle of Higher Education, September 10, 1999.

Crowe, Jerry. “Billy McGill Has Difficult Time With Life After Basketball,” Los Angeles Times, February 20, 2011

Goon, Kyle. “Utah basketball: Utes pioneer Bill McGill dies at 74,” Salt Lake Tribune, July 12, 2014

 

The Pieces of a Bigger Story: How Early Women Penetrated the Male-Dominated Field of Engineering

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Margaret Ferron, upper left, and Dorothy Craig are examples of how World War II influenced women in certain fields of work. Ferron is seen here with her drawing board in the mechanical drawing lab while Craig is seen doing some “experimenting.” Used with permission, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

By Eliza Jane Pace

In 2019, according to the Office of Budget and Institutional Analysis at the University of Utah, there are a great number of people enrolled in engineering majors. However, there are large discrepancies in the numbers when comparing genders. At a pre-major level for instance, only 3,387 are women while men number 4,290, a whopping 903 person difference. That’s not the only area of difference. In every aspect of every engineering major, pre-major, to bachelors, to doctorate, men outnumber women. This difference is not unusual. The Daily Utah Chronicle has several articles as early as the 1930s talking about the novelty of women enrolled in engineering majors.

The professor and head of the electrical engineering department, Dr. L. D. Harris, was quoted in The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 17, 1961, stating, “We’ve had two women graduate in this field -— both in the 1930s.” In an earlier article it mentions the names of these two women listed as graduating from the engineering program, Dorothy Blades in 1924 and Mary Frances Plumb in 1934 in The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 27, 1935.

Even by 1961, 31 years later, only one or two women decided to take on the challenge of entering the engineering field as stated in The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 17. This article will explore the women who penetrated these fields and how their position as women in engineering fields was treated.

Each of these women have their own reasons for entering the field and their own opinions about women in engineering.

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Judy Brown was honored for her achievements in her field of civil engineering by the Associated Women Students. She was one of only two women enrolled in engineering fields. Used with permission, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

A senior in civil engineering, Judy Brown, was a transfer student from the University of Wyoming and used to being the only girl in her classes. She continued as the only woman registered in upper classes in any field of engineering at the University of Utah and was eventually honored by the AWS or Associated Women Students, reported The Daily Utah Chronicle on November 16, 1961, for her accomplishments in her field of study and her 3.92 grade point average.

Despite being told on her first day that the “Frosh English class was across the hall,” Brown laughed. “They finally decided that maybe I belonged.”

Margaret Ferron was highlighted in The Daily Utah Chronicle, February 25, 1943, and chose to enter engineering because it was a family affair.  She said that despite what others believed she was not in the field for attention or to find a man. “My father happens to be an engineer, and so are my two brothers; in fact, I just come from an engineering family, and I decided to carry on the tradition.”

Ferron added, “There’s a lot of prejudice against women engineers at the present time. But I think it will be all dispelled as the war makes it more and more necessary for women to be trained to take the place of men in the engineering field.”

According to The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 27, 1935, Opal Cummings age 16 was the only girl registered in any field of engineering at the University of Utah at that time. A graduate of local West High School, she believed that “women are just as well qualified as men in engineering.”

Each of these women have a story, and represent part of an even bigger story still being told. Women have certainly increased their presence in the workplace since the early to mid 1900s, but the trend of males dominating in engineering fields continue.

Some claim it’s because of the lifestyles women lead, with many choosing to have children or raise a family, lifestyles that are not as conducive to having such an intensive major and job. According to an article in the Salt Lake Tribune in June 2013, “Far fewer women study STEM fields at Utah colleges -— just 12% of engineering degrees … go to women.” However, even the language of the articles portrays a difference of societal expectations, as seen in The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 17, 1961, which focused on how the female students would still “find a husband.” It’s hard to tell how much of this large gap in numbers is because of sexism and oppression or if it’s simply the result of a different culture and expectations. But one thing is for sure, these early women who were willing to push beyond any barriers in engineering fields have paved the way for women to come.

Eliza Jane Pace is a sophomore at the University of Utah, majoring in communication with an emphasis in journalism and a minor in music. 

Primary Sources

Girl Engineer Dislikes Males,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 27, 1935.

Is Engineering for Males Only? Nope! Ute Coeds’re In,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 17, 1961.

AWS Honors Engie Coed,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, November 16, 1961.

Utah Coeds Go All Out for War,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, February 25, 1943.

University to Graduate 296 Students,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, May 18, 1944.

Walter Crosby Eells, “Earliest Collegiate Degrees Authorized for Women,” Educational Horizons 39 no. 4 (Summer 1961): 135-37.

Lindsay Whitehurst, “Why are Utah women far behind men in STEM education, jobs?” The Salt Lake Tribune, June 8, 2013.

Secondary Source

Office of Budget and Institutional Analysis, The University of Utah.

 

 

 

 

Blood Drive Saves Lives

By Aubrey R. Olsen

After the end of World War II and the Korean War, the world, and the United States, were on edge waiting for the next war to break out. It wasn’t long until the Vietnam War started and many were back to serving, getting deployed and fighting for our country. With this being the case, injuries were plentiful and blood was in a very high demand. In an effort to help with the massive blood shortage the United States was facing, coeds at the University of Utah held a week long blood drive in hopes of doing their part for the war here in Utah, while so many were fighting for the United States in Vietnam.

The Blood drive was organized and ran by cochairmen Deanne Simmons and ROTC sponsor Sally Anderson. They encouraged all students, faculty and staff to participate and do their part for our country by participating in the blood drive from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. in the Union from November 13, 1961 to November 17, 1961. The goal was to donate and collect a total of 500 pints of blood in the span of that one school week, Monday through Friday.

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Blood drive cochairs Deanne Simmons, left, and Sally Anderson. Image appeared in the November 13, 1961, issue of The Daily Utah Chronicle.

According to the November 13, 1961, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle, “Coed ‘Vampires’ to Stage Bloodletting on U Campus,” coeds were encouraged to donate blood by being given incentives as motivation. Simmons and Anderson created a contest in which the club or organization on the University of Utah Campus that donated the most blood would be rewarded with prizes. There were four different categories that students could claim they were a part of as a way to win the prize. The categories were fraternal, service and religious, residence hall, and military.

An encouragement that was frequently used around campus and in the entire weeks issues of the Utah Chronicle was to do your part for our country while the brave young men are fighting and do what you can on the “home front.”

On top of having incentives and prizes as a reason for coeds to donate, it was announced in the November 14, 1961, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle “Blood, Sweat and Tears Not Necessary – Just Blood,” that if coeds were to donate to the blood bank during the blood drive, they would be able to draw from the blood bank for free at any point in time in the future for free. This was a really big deal for people as the memory of World War II was still fresh on people’s minds and the fear and constant threat of there being another war on the United States “home turf” loomed in the back of people’s minds.

By the end of the first day of the week which was full of events and donations, University of Utah students, staff and faculty were able to donate a total of one hundred and seven pints of blood. According to the November 15, 1961, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle in an article titled, “Blood Oozes from Donors as Utes Donate 107 Pints,” students were continuously encouraged by blood drive sponsors who were stressing the importance of building a large reserve of blood. These encouragements worked as donations continued to flood in over the course of the next 4 days.

It was stated in the November 17, 1961, issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle Article “U Blood Drive Ends With Counts in Red,” at the end of the week, the students, faculty and staff had donated a total of over 474 pints. Carolyn Wheeler, chief nurse claimed that even though the University didn’t meet their original goal of donating a total of 500 pints, the University of Utah and local blood banks are taking the week as a win and are “proud of the outcome and number of donations made.”

The events that took place in November of 1961 during the blood drive on the University of Utah’s campus are still vastly important to us today for many reasons. Blood donations always seem to be in short supply and blood banks and the American Red Cross Association are constantly in search of blood donations to help with people’s medical needs both locally, nationally and internationally.

Another thing we can learn from and relate to with the blood drive of 1961 is the current state of the United States and the fact that we’ve been involved in a constant war in Afghanistan since 2001. While many of us aren’t actively in the United States Military or plan on joining the United States Military, we could help with the war efforts by donating blood to those injured in the war.

Aubrey R. Olsen graduated from the University of Utah with a Bachelor of Science in Strategic Communication in December 2019 and is working in advertising.

Primary Sources

Blood, Sweat and Tears Not Necessary – Just Blood,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 14, 1961.

Blood Oozes from Donors as Utes Donate 107 Pints,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 15, 1961.

Coed ‘Vampires’ to Stage Bloodletting on U Campus,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 13, 1961.

U Blood Drive Ends with Count in Red,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 17, 1961.

Utes Donate 269 Pints; Blood Drive Ends Today,Daily Utah Chronicle, November 16, 1961.

How Football Gave and Took from the Borich Family  

By Hunter H. Miller

Joe Borich was not your typical athlete. Borich, a two-sport star at Murray High School, originally began his college career at the University of Utah as a member of the Utah Men’s Basketball team. His freshman year, Borich was the second-leading scorer behind the eventual number-one NBA Draft pick Billy McGill, according to the Deseret News on Dec. 3, 2000. That is when the football team came calling. “I was shooting hoops one day in the Einar Nelson Fieldhouse, and the football trainer came in and said coach [Ray] Nagel wanted my butt on the football field,” Borich told the Deseret News. That’s when Borich became a two-sport star for the Utes.

Borich would go on to have an impressive career for the University of Utah football team. Borich finished his career with seven receiving touchdowns, including five in the 1961 season, according to Ute Stats. In today’s game of football, five touchdown catches is hardly an impressive feat, in fact, in 2018 the leading receiver in the country, John Ursua, caught 16 touchdowns according to Sports-Reference, more than three times that of Joe Borich in 1961. However, in the era of football in the 1960s, passing had yet to be used frequently by football teams. Most receivers were lucky to finish their career with a single touchdown, making Borich’s five in 1961, the sixth-most by any player in the country that season according to Sports-Reference.

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Human brain suffering from chronic traumatic encephalopathy compared to a normal, healthy brain. Used by permission, Boston University Research: CTE Center.

Borich would never go on to play professional football, although the chances were there for the Utah star. Instead, Borich would go on to join the Army Reserve, being stationed in California, before becoming a Police Officer for Salt Lake County, according to the Deseret News on Dec. 3, 2000.

While Borich never played football beyond the college level, the sport continued to be a staple in the Borich household. Borich’s son, Mike Borich, would go on to play for Snow College before working as an assistant coach for BYU and eventually the NFL’s Chicago Bears, according to ESPN on October 22, 2009. Football was life for much of the Borich family until it took the life of one of them.

According to Mike Borich’s obituary, the eldest of Joe Borich’s two sons died on Feb. 9, 2009, at his home in Midvale, Utah, at the age of 42. Much like Joe Borich would be one of the first receivers to find success in the game of college football, his son Mike’s death would prove to be a groundbreaking occurrence for the sport.

Eight months following the death of Mike Borich, ESPN reported that the Boston University School of Medicine had found signs of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) in the brain of Mike Borich. It was the first time that CTE had been found in a player who did not play beyond the college football level. According to the Boston University CTE Research Center, “(CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in people with a history of repetitive brain trauma (often athletes), including symptomatic concussions as well as asymptomatic subconcussive hits to the head that do not cause symptoms. CTE has been known to affect boxers since the 1920s. In recent years, reports have been published of neuropathologically confirmed CTE found in other athletes, including football and hockey players (playing and retired), as well as in military veterans who have a history of repetitive brain trauma.”

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Concussions are serious brain injury suffered when the skull is jolted or impacted by a hard surface. The brain shifts, slamming against the skull, causing damage and swelling to the brain. Concussions can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Used by permission, Max Andrews.

Mike Borich’s death led to increased awareness of CTE and the effects that it can have on those who suffer from it. But while his death was just the start of CTE awareness in sports, it was the end of a struggle for the Borich family. According to the Denver Post, Joe Borich found relief in the CTE diagnosis in his son as it provided some answers for Mike’s peculiar behavior and subsequent drug addiction in the years leading to his death.

Joe Borich was an accomplished athlete and someone who gave a large portion of his young life to the game of football. But while football gave Borich so much in his life, it has also taken away a large part of it. He once was a groundbreaking athlete, finding success on the football field in ways that were decades ahead of his time. But it may be a groundbreaking occurrence in his life off of the field that has a more lasting impact on his life and the life of others who take part in the sport of football. As researchers and doctors continue to study CTE and look for ways to negate the effects that head trauma can have on a person, Borich recognized the significance of his son’s death and the positive impact it can have.

Recently CTE was discovered in 110 of 111 brains of former professional football players, according to  The New York Times, July 25, 2017, and it is believed that at least 9.6% of NFL players will suffer from CTE, according to a recent study (Binney and Bachynski). Joe Borich recognized that the death of his son could provide knowledge about the disease and increase awareness about the dangers of CTE. “If this study can help somehow progress the knowledge, it’s worth it,” he said (Denver Post).

Hunter Miller is a senior at the University of Utah majoring in communication. Hunter is also a reporter for ESPN 960 covering BYU Athletics.

Primary Sources

“Athletic Borich leads by example,” The Deseret News, December 3, 2000.

Joe Borich,” Ute Stats.

“Degenerative disease found in donated brain of former college player,” Denver Post, May 6, 2016.

“Player’s brain shows signs of CTE,” ESPN, October 22, 2009.

Frequently Asked Questions About CTE,” Boston University Research: CTE Center.

Mike Joe Borich,” Legacy.com, February 11, 2009.

“110 N.F.L. Brains,” The New York Times, July 25, 2017.

Zachary O. Binney and Kathleen E. Bachynski, “Estimating the prevalence at death of CTE neuropathology among professional football players,” Neurology 92, no. 1 (January 1, 2019).

Joe Borich,” SportsReference.com.

2018 College Football Year Summary,” SportsReference.com.

 

Dr. Ewart Swinyard and his Contribution to Pharmaceutical Progress in Universities

By Bryce Merrill

Ewart A. Swinyard was born January 3, 1909, in Logan, Utah. Later in life he was a student, professor and dean of the College of Pharmacy at the University of Utah. He taught the students about advances made in the field of pharmaceutical research and founded the U’s school of Alcoholism and Drugs. He was constantly looking at the future of pharmacology and felt the need to instill that urgency in students of the field as well. He died on July 10, 1997.

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Dr. Ewart A. Swinyard in 1961. He delivered a lecture around this time about the future of pharmacology on campus. From The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 20, 1961.

Swinyard had a degree in zoology from Utah State University and later received a degree in pharmacology from the University of Utah, Idaho State University, and the University of Minnesota each. (The Deseret News) The Provo Sunday Herald reported that he was one of the first people to get a graduate degree from the University of Utah in 1947. The Vernal Express noted that he even received an honorary doctorate from Utah State University in 1983 in the university’s 90th commencement.

Swinyard was interested in all advances in the pharmaceutical field he stated in an address on the University of Utah Campus in 1961. He said he hoped that expenditures in drug research would increase which would indicate more progress was being made in the field. (The Daily Utah Chronicle) He also discussed methods used to discover new drugs. The methods he discussed were; accidents, specifically designed chemical structures, and screening of new drugs, as reported by the Chronicle before his talk on October 19, 1961.

In a speech Swinyard gave in 1977 titled “Research and Graduate Education in Pharmacy: Looking Back – Looking Forward” he expressed his concern with the state of the contributions of universities and colleges to progress in the field. He emphasized that “tomorrow … is being made today” to point out that if the university did not focus on educating students better and increasing its contribution to science it could be left behind in the future. (Ewart Anslie Swinyard Papers, Box 8, Folder 1)

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Dr. Swinyard running an experiment on a mouse while researching a cure for epilepsy in 1967. From The Daily Utah Chronicle, May 9, 1967.

One of the focuses of Swinyard’s work was finding a cure for seizures and epilepsy. The Salt Lake Telegram, on August 13, 1949, reported he was part of a team doing research on epilepsy. Another article, again in The Daily Utah Chronicle on May 9, 1967, states that Dr. Swinyard had “been investigating convulsive disorders for 20 years.” His research involving mice was cited by Dr. David L. Hiner, the then dean of the School of Pharmacy, as getting “health sciences … closer to the solution of the control of epileptic seizures than ever before.”

Eighteen years later The Daily Utah Chronicle published an article about Swinyard’s continued research on curing epilepsy. At that time, he was the director of the Antiepileptic Drug Development Laboratory in the U’s College of Pharmacy. He said the “NIH (National Institute of Health) decided to start a program of their own” when it found out no pharmaceutical firm was actively working on an anti-epileptic drug.

Dr. Ewart A. Swinyard’s contributions as the dean and founder of the University of Utah’s College of Pharmacy helped shape the school’s future thanks to his forward-thinking attitude. (The Deseret News) Dr. Swinyard was an important part of the university’s past, present, and future due to his foresight and focus. His constant commitment to furthering not just the school’s place in its field but to developing life changing drugs to help others, Dr. Swinyard’s presence is felt by all those who have benefited from the School of Pharmacy, be they student or teacher.

Bryce Merrill is a senior at the University of Utah. He is majoring in strategic communication and minoring in sociology.

Primary Sources

900 Students Get Diplomas,” Provo Sunday Herald, June 15, 1947, 5.

DeVan Shumway, “Physician Sees Possibility Of Cure for Epilepsy,” Salt Lake Telegram, August 13, 1949, 10.

Elaine Krans, “Dr. Ewart Swinyard Set Lecture On ‘Drugs From Laboratory To Man,’” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 19, 1961, 1.

Swinyard Cites Progress In Pharmacy Research,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, October 20, 1961, 1.

Epileptic Control,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, May 9, 1967, 5.

Researchers test mice for cure of seizures,” The Daily Utah Chronicle, September 30, 1985, 13.

USU Graduates Listed for 1983,” Vernal Express, May 25, 1983, 20.

Funeral set for Ewart A. Swinyard,” Deseret News, July 14, 1997.

Secondary Source

Swinyard, Ewart Anslie. The Ewart Anslie Swinyard Papers, 1945-1987. Box 8, Folder 1, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Gregory Crampton: U of U Professor Who Conducted Archaeological Research on Glen Canyon

By Seungwon Na

Glen Canyon, located in southeastern Utah and northern Arizona, is now a popular tourist site where millions of people visit each year to enjoy the beautiful scenery and nature: Lake Powell and the tributaries of the Colorado River. However, while tourists relish their excursion to Glen Canyon, they are not fully aware of the efforts that were put by many scholars and researchers to maintain its historical values and beauty. In fact, there is a prominent researcher whose study on Glen Canyon must be recognized: Dr. C. Gregory Crampton.

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Dr. C. Gregory Crampton was a prominent researcher who conducted research on Glen Canyon to record its history before the construction of the dam. He died in 1995. Used by permission, Utah State Historical Society.

Before Dr. Crampton joined the history faculty of University of Utah in 1945, he was already a renowned scholar for his study in Latin American countries. The Daily Utah Chronicle described the professor on November 7, 1961, as a member of “Phi Kappa Phi, scholastic honorary, and Phi Alpha Theta, national honorary society in history.” However, it was after moving to the University of Utah when he started to focus on his research in Glen Canyon. Since 1957, Dr. Crampton started to work for the National Park Service. According to a 1961 Daily Utah Chronicle article, as construction of Glen Canyon dam was expected to be completed by 1963, Dr. Crampton had to “salvage archeological, geological, and historical values in the area” before then. However, within the short amount of time, Dr. Crampton succeeded in unveiling Glen Canyon’s historical background and recording its original land formation.

The first task Dr. Crampton had was to identify the missing history of Glen Canyon before A.D 1300. Through careful excavations, he found out that the first dwellers in Glen Canyon were the Anasazi, so called ancient ones. (Ghosts of Glen Canyon, p. 1) Dr. Crampton asserted they settled in Glen Canyon around the 10th century A.D. and relied on farming and hunting for their livings. In his 1986 book Ghosts of Glen Canyon, there is a evidence of “prehistoric petroglyphs located near Hite in upper Glen Canyon.” (p.1) After staying temporarily in Glen Canyon, Dr. Crampton presumed Anasazis left the region due to a sustained drought or the appearance of hostile nomads. (Ghosts of Glen Canyon, p. 2)

Soon after analyzing the first prehistoric men to land in Glen Canyon, Dr. Crampton moved on to study people who visited Glen Canyon later. He discovered that in 1776, Spaniards Dominguez and Escalante arrived in Glen Canyon. Dr. Crampton claimed they were the first white men to land in Glen Canyon. On the Southern part of the Glen Canyon, Paiute Indians fought to preserve their territory against Navajo Indians. (Ghosts of Glen Canyon, p. 3) He also found out that during 1821-1848, Glen Canyon was used as a trade route between New Mexico and California.

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Lake Powell, a reservoir on the Colorado River, was created after the construction of Glen Canyon dam in 1963. Used by permission, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, The University of Utah.

Nevertheless, this was not an end to the discovery of Glen Canyon’s history. His 1986 book Ghosts of Glen Canyon tells us that in May 24, 1869, John Wesley Powell, “an American explorer and civil war veteran,” (p.7) visited the place to complete the missing portion of the map. In September 1883, the Cass Hite’s findings of gold in the region attracted many prospectors and many Mormon explorers and fur trappers visited the place. (Ghosts of Glen Canyon, p. 9)

After finishing his research about Glen Canyon, Dr. Crampton published his book Standing up Country: The Canyon Lands of Utah and Arizona in 1964. The reaction from the public was sensational as he was a pioneer to fully investigate the history of Glen Canyon and publish it as a book. The professor was also proud that he “[preserved] the history of the flooded area for future use.” (“Dr. Crampton Reviews”) According to a 1965 Daily Utah Chronicle article, in 1964, the Western Heritage Awards Commitee acknowledged his achievements and awarded him the Outstanding Western Non-fiction Book of the Year.

Dr. Crampton continued his teaching at the University of Utah and visited numerous institutions in the United States to lecture about his findings in Glen Canyon. After tremendously contributing to Utah history, he died in 1995. His students and professional associates described him as a professor with “intellectual acuteness and integrity.” (Peterson, 4) Although Dr. Crampton is not alive, his effort and dedication to inform people about Glen Canyon will be forever remembered and appreciated.

Seungwon Na is a senior at the University of Utah. He is studying communication with an emphasis in journalism.

Primary Sources

 Dr. Crampton to Tell of Glen Canyon,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 27, 1958, 3.

Dr. Crampton to Speak on Glen Canyon History,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 7, 1961, 1.

Dr. Crampton Reviews Chapter of Utah History,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 8, 1961, 1.

Ex History Honorary Chief to Address Ute Students,” Daily Utah Chronicle, January 10, 1962, 3.

Dr. Crampton to Lecture Tuesday,” Daily Utah Chronicle, July 18, 1963, 1.

Canyon Country is the Subject of Beautiful New Illustrated History,” Times Independent, November 5, 1964, 10.

U of U Prof Writes History of 4-Corner ‘Standing Up Country,’” Beaver County News, November 19, 1964, 1.

Professor’s Book Lauded,” Daily Utah Chronicle, May 18, 1965, 5.

Secondary Sources

Crampton, C. Gregory. Standing Up Country: The Canyon Lands of Utah and Arizona. New York: Knopf, 1964.

Crampton, C. Gregory. Ghosts of Glen Canyon: History Beneath Lake Powell. Salt Lake City, Utah: Bonneville Books, 1986.

Peterson, Charles S. “In Memoriam: C. Gregory Crampton, 1911-95,” Utah Historical Quarterly 63, no.4 (Fall 1995): 2-6.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Journey Through the First Three Season’s of Ray Nagel’s Career

By Sammy Mora

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Ray Nagel was the University of Utah head football coach from 1958-1965. Photo courtesy of The Daily Utah Chronicle.

Ray Nagel was the head football coach of the University of Utah football team from 1958-1965. During his time at Utah, his record was 42-39-1. (Ray Nagel Coaching Record) He led his team to an appearance in the 1964 Liberty Bowl to take on West Virginia, which was iconic in its own right. The Liberty Bowl was one of the major postseason games that year, but also it was the first ever college football game played inside. That year’s game was played inside the Atlantic City Convention Center. (Miller) The Utes won the game against West Virginia 32-6.

That year was the best year Nagel had during his time at Utah, not only did he win the Liberty Bowl, his team was named the Western Athletic Conference (WAC) football champion that season. Nagel was also named the WAC Coach of the Year in 1964. (Blevin, p. 144)

Nagel was hired as the new head coach of the University of Utah football team in January 1958. Before he was hired by Utah, he was an assistant football coach at his alma mater, UCLA. (Pearson) The University President, A. Ray Olpin, told the Salt Lake Tribune when Nagel was named the head coach that “in Nagel the University is getting the most outstanding young coach in the nation. He has wonderful background as a player and coach and comes to us with the highest of recommendations from such men as Red Sanders, Bud Wilkinson and Tom Prothro.” Sanders, Wilkinson and Prothro were all coworkers while Nagel was at UCLA. According to the Daily Utah Chronicle, at the time he was hired, Nagel was the second youngest coach to spearhead the university football team. The only coach who was younger than Nagel at the time he was hired was the great Ike Armstrong. (West)

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University of Utah head football coach Ray Nagel stands next to a statue on the campus of the University of Utah where he was the head football coach from 1958-1965. Photo courtesy of The Daily Utah Chronicle.

While his first season at the helm of Utah football was not ideal, finishing the season 4-7, from that moment his record as the head coach went up. In his second season he finished 5-5, his third 7-3. His best season happened during his seventh year at Utah when he went 9-2 and earned a Liberty Bowl berth.

According to the Daily Utah Chronicle, even in his first year as the head coach the team wanted to make him proud and look good. According to Walt Deland, who was a trainer on the team, “I heard some players talking and Pete Haun said, ‘I’ve never seen any man that I would rather model my life after than Ray Nagel.’” Haun was one of many players whom Nagel coached during his time at Utah.

Not only was Nagel a powerhouse on the field, he was also involved in activities around the university. He spoke multiple times at the student union. A reporter for the Daily Utah Chronicle on April 9, 1958, said that Nagel’s speech focused on defensive topics and how he would implement a tough defense to try and make the U football team harder to play against making it so fans would come out and support the team.

Not only was he known for his speaking on campus, he also penned an article for the Daily Utah Chronicle that same season. That season the team finished with a 4-7 record and while it looked as if there were lots of lows Nagel talked about the positive saying, “Our last three games are a good indication of the team’s progress. We lost to Colorado, 7-0, despite the fact that we dominated the game in all but one important aspect­—the score. Then we defeated Utah State, 12- and Hawaii, 47-20.”

From the 1958 season on, Nagel’s squads proved to be resilient opponents, winning more games in Nagel’s second and third season than in his first season as the head coach.

During the 1961 season, Nagel was named the United Press International (UPI) coach of the week after his team upset Colorado 21-12, in a game the Utes were expected to lose. That season even after facing powerhouse teams like Oregon, Wisconsin, Arizona State and the previously mentioned Buffaloes, the team finished with 6 wins and 3 losses.

Without Nagel’s contribution to Utah football, the team might not have made the jump from the Skyline Conference to the WAC, and then from the WAC to the Mountain West and in 2011 joining the Pac-12. He was a key piece of Utah football history, as well as college football in general. He also helped other schools not only as a coach but  as an athletic director to help make the jump and make their football teams and athletic departments better.

Sammy Mora is a junior at the University of Utah. She is a communication major whose focus is journalism. She is a sports management minor. 

Primary Sources

Vince Pearson, “Newest Ute? Coach Nagel!” Daily Utah Chronicle, January 1, 1958, 1.

Dee Chipman, “New Ute Grid Mentor Has His Problems,” Desert News, January 31, 1958.

“University Coach Youthful, Qualified,” Salt Lake Times, February 7, 1958, 3.

“Nagel Speaks in Union,” Daily Utah Chronicle, April 9, 1958, 4.

Bob Beers, “Coach Ray Nagel Inspires Ute Players,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 4, 1958, 4.

Ray Nagel, “Coach Nagel Sums up Concluded Grid Season,” Daily Utah Chronicle, December 12, 1958, 8.

John West, “Nagel is Second Youngest Coach in U Grid History,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 22, 1959, 4.

“Ute Coach Selected UPI ‘Coach of Week’,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 16, 1961, 4.

“Coach, Tackle Receive Honors,” Daily Utah Chronicle, December 7, 1964, 3.

Reece Stein, “New Grid Mentor in S.L. for Talks,” Daily Utah Chronicle, January 5, 1966 4.

Bruce Miller, “Utah Coaches are ‘Winners’,” Daily Utah Chronicle, November 3, 1967, 12.

Secondary Sources

Blevins, Dave. College Football Awards: All National and Conference Winners Through 2010. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co., 2012.

Miller, D.A. “#8: 1964 Liberty Bowl—Utah vs. West Virginia,” The Greatest Utah Football Games Ever, blog.

Ray Nagel,” Sports Reference.

 

 

 

United Nations Week — Utah, 1961

By Rachel T. Maughan

In January 1961, the United Nations, under President John F. Kennedy, decided that the decade of the 1960s would be the Decade of Development. “Although it has experienced delays and disappointments the U.N. still embodies man’s best hopes this seems as surly as the world prepares to celebrate U.N. Day Tuesday.” (Provo Daily Herald, 10) The U.N. World Organization has relieved suffering and has preserved a measure of peace. Utah celebrated the 16th birthday of the United Nations by having multiple events across the state.

“Now therefore I, John F. Kennedy, President of the United States of America, do hereby urge the citizens of this nation to observe Tuesday, October 24 as United Nations Day, by means of community programs which will demonstrate their faith in the United Nations and contribute to a better understanding of its aims, problems, and accomplishments.” (“United Nations Day: Faith Demonstration”)

“Where as the General Assembly of the United Nations has resolved that October 24, the anniversary of the coming into force of the United Nations Charter, should be dedicated each year to making known the purposes, principles and accomplishments of the United Nations.” (“United Nations Day”)

In Utah, Governor George D. Clyde declared October 23 through 29 to be designated as United Nation Week. (“U.N. Week Set”)

In the city of Bountiful, Utah, Mayor Harold L. Pope also signed a proclamation designating United Nations Week in his community. (Davis County Clipper, 6)

In the city of Orem, they had a ceremony called ‘Trees for Peace’ which involved elementary school kids planted more maple trees in Orem City Park. (Orem-Geneva Times, 1)

Also, high schools throughout Utah were each assigned a different country, and participated in a two-day reenactment of U.N. sessions held at the University of Utah. (Provo Daily Herald, 10)

The University of Utah had two major events to celebrate U.N. that week. The first was a pre-symphony reception for foreign students from high schools in the state, held Saturday in the rotunda and Gold Room of the Utah State Capitol. The second event of the week was a discussion on foreign policy issues in relation to the current session of the U.N. in 1961, and was scheduled for Monday in the auditorium of the Prudential Building. (“U.N. Week Set”) “Saturday’s concert includes an overture to Oberon by Weber; Schubert’s ballet music from ‘Rosemuta’ ‘Don Juan’ by Richard Strauss; and Tchaikovsky‘s ‘Pathetique’ Symphony, as a tribute to United Nations Day.” (“Symphony Season Opens”)

Warren C. Hickins

Warren I. Cikins, a State Department official, gave a talk called, “U.S. Foreign Policy and the United Nations,” on October 27, 1961, at the University of Utah campus. The photo was published in that issue of the Daily Utah Chronicle.

“US Foreign Policy and the United Nations” will be the theme of a talk given by Warren I. Cikins.” (“State Department Official”) The State Department planned to celebrate the 16th anniversary of the United Nations with a speaking tour and Cikins gladly volunteered. He spent two weeks traveling through the western states to speak to different crowds of people. “At the time, U.S. participation in the United Nations was a controversial topic, and the State Department was loudly criticized for “losing” China to the Communists.” (Fitzpatrick)

Students at the University of Utah held a fundraiser for UNICEF. The United Nations Children’s Fund saves millions of young lives all over the world. A collection drive took place Halloween night at the dorms. All proceeds went to the United Nations Children’s Fund and were distributed among 50 countries where three quarters” of the world’s children are sickly starving or otherwise being neglected.” (“Carlson Hall Collects”)

The 16th birthday of the United Nations was a perfect time to celebrate its successes and have a day/week to better inform and educate the country on its efforts. “No man is an island entire of itself. Here lies the fundamental reason for the existence of the United Nations organization.” (Provo Daily Herald, 10)

Rachel Maughan graduated in December 2019 with a Bachelor of Arts in Communication.

Primary Sources

U.N. Week Set by Governor George D. Clyde,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 21, 1960, 4.

Symphony Season Opens with UN Day Tribute,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 20, 1961, 1.

United Nations Day: Faith Demonstration,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 24, 1961, 2.

Foreign Policy Set as Theme for UN Talks,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 26, 1961, 1.

State Department Official to Speak on UN Topic,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 27, 1961, 1.

Carlson Hall Collects for UNICEF,” Daily Utah Chronicle, October 30, 1961, 3.

Celebrate UN Week,” Davis County Clipper, October 20, 1961, 6.

United Nations 16th Birthday,” Provo Daily Herald, October 23, 1961, 10.

This is United Nations Week,” Millard County Chronicle, October 26, 1961, 4.

“‘Trees For Peace’ Ceremony Note U.N. Day,” Orem-Geneva Times, October 26, 1.

Secondary Sources

Fitzpatrick, Christina Lehman. “The Newly Opened Personal Papers of Warren I. Cikins.” John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, July 3, 2012.

Guide to the Warren I. Cikins Personal Papers (#350), John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.